Abdorrahman Boroumand Center

for Human Rights in Iran

https://www.iranrights.org
This page is a window into Iran's overpopulated prisons and the political prisoners, prisoners of opinion and human rights defenders, journalists, labor activists, environmentalists, members of religious and ethnic minorities, and many others held arbitrarily in sub-standard conditions where they are exposed to COVID-19. Abdorrahman Boroumand Center for Human Rights in Iran has launched the #Setthemfree campaign to draw visibility to these prisoners and the reason why they have been incarcerated; to shed light on prison conditions and the violations of prisoners' right to health and right to life; and to demand the mass release of prisoners during the pandemic.
Ali Alinejad
Ali Alinejad, a writer and editor, was arrested on September 24, 2019, owing to the activities of his sister Masih Alinejad, an opponent of the Islamic Republic who founded the White Wednesdays campaign against the compulsory hejab. A few days after his arrest, a video was circulated in which he defended his sister and stated that he and other family members had been pressured to distance themselves from her. Owing to his refusal to denounce his sister and disapprove of her activism on camera, as well as his informing her of an intelligence service plot to kidnap her in Turkey, Ali Alinejad was sentenced to eight years of prison.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: "Propaganda against the regime", "assembly and collusion against national security", and "insulting the Supreme Leader and Founder of the Islamic Republic".

Courts: "Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 28, Tehran Court of Appeal, Branch 36

Judges: Mohammad Moqiseh, Ahmad Zargar
Golrokh Ebrahimi Ira'i
Golrokh Ebrahimi Ira’i, political activist, was last arrested on November 9, 2019. She was sentenced to 3 years in prison (25 months of which are mandatory jail time) and banned from membership in groups and political parties for 2 years, for issuing announcements from inside prison, for contact with the media for the purpose of reporting on the prisoners’ conditions, and for singing songs in protest of the execution of three ethnic Kurd activists during her previous incarceration (for an unpublished story regarding stoning).

Place of detention: Qarchak Prison

Charges: “Propaganda against the Regime”, “Insulting the Supreme Leader”

Courts: Tehran Revolutionary Court, Branch 26; Tehran Province Court of Appeals

Judge: Iman Afshari
Sina Dehqan
Sina Dehqan was arrested on October 21, 2015, at the age of 19, while spending the final days of his mandatory military service, and taken to a military base in Tehran. He was sentenced to death for initiating and participating in an online campaign, writing articles, and publishing pictures. In this online campaign, certain writings were published in opposition to Islam and the Moslem Holy Book, as well as pictures of a burnt Koran. He was promised that he would be released if he signed the papers related to his confession, which he did. Dehqan suffers from depression. It is said that because of Dehqan’s activities in the prison’s cultural unit and Dar-al-Koran (“House of the Koran”) his sentence [of capital punishment] has been reduced to long term imprisonment.

Place of detention: Central Prison of Arak

Charges: “Sabb-al-nabi” (“Insulting the Prophet Mohammad”), “Insulting the Supreme Leader or the Founder of the Islamic Republic”

Courts: [City of] Arak Criminal Court, Branch One; the Supreme Court
Raheleh Ahmadi
After her daughter Saba Kord Afshari was sentenced to 24 years in prison for protesting the compulsory hijab, Raheleh Ahmadi spoke publicly about her plight and was sentenced to four years and two months in prison. The sentence was reduced to two years and seven months when she forfeited her right to appeal. During her trial, Ahmadi said that she spoke out about her concerns online only after judicial authorities were not responsive to inquiries about her daughter’s case. Ahmadi has hypothyroidism, which weakens the immune system. Though her sentence of less than five years makes her eligible for temporary COVID-19-related leave, she continues to be barred from this privilege.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Assembly and collusion against national security by way of collaboration with hostile media”; “propaganda against the regime”

Court: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 26

Judge: Iman Afshari
Saba Kord Afshari
Saba Kord Afshari, a 22-year-old active with the “White Wednesdays” campaign to protest the compulsory hijab, was arrested on June 1, 2019 and sentenced to seven and a half years in prison for having contacts with foreign media. Though found not guilty of “incitement to corruption and prostitution” for walking without a hejab, she was sentenced to another 15 years of prison on this very charge. A short while before this verdict, she had, along with other prisoners, participated in a sit-in protest against the killing of November 2019 protesters. Kord Afshari is being held in the women’s ward of Evin Prison, where she has no access to medical care despite suffering from digestive issues.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Assembly and collusion with intent to commit crimes against national security”, and “propaganda against the regime”

Courts:Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 26; Appeals Court of Tehran Province, Branch 36

Judges: Iman Afshari, Ahmad Zargar
Seyedeh Khadijeh Mirghafari
Khadijeh (Leila) Mirghafari - a civil society activist, women’s rights defender, and opponent of the compulsory hijab - was given a five year sentence for participating in a November 21, 2015 gathering in support of prisoners of conscience outside Evin Prison. She is currently serving this sentence in Ward 5 of Qarchak Prison in Varamin. In April/May 2020, it was reported that she had contracted the novel coronavirus in prison, had been put in quarantine, and was being given few, low-quality food rations. Mirghafari had previously been arrested for activism against the compulsory hijab and had been twice sentenced to pay monetary penalties.

Place of detention: Qarchak Prison

Charges: Assembly and collusion
Mehdi Farahi Shandiz
Mehdi Farahi Shandiz, a 59-year-old teacher, was arrested in June 2010 and sentenced to three years in prison for chanting slogans and insisting on entering Tehran Revolutionary Court. In the months since his previous arrest in 2009 amid gatherings for International Workers’ Day, he had repeatedly returned to court to reclaim confiscated personal identification documents and a computer, and was arrested during his most recent attempt to get them back. While in prison, he was sentenced to an additional nine years for chanting slogans against the Supreme Leader and vandalizing framed pictures of him.

Place of detention: Central Prison of Karaj

Charges: “Insulting the Supreme Leader and disrupting order”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branches 15 and 28

Judges: Mohammad Moqiseh, Abolqasem Salavati
Mohammad Najafi
Released on bail
Mohammad Najafi took on political and security-related cases. He was prosecuted following a speech he gave at the home of Gohar Eshghi, mother of Sattar Beheshti (a blogger who was tortured to death) in which he was highly critical of the government, and for following up on the death of Vahid Heidari, who was arrested during the December 2017-January 2018 protests. He was further prosecuted and sentenced following a letter to Supreme Leader Khamenei in which he was critical of policies of the Islamic Republic. Quoting certain Revolutionary Guards’ Information agents, Najafi has stated that they intend to keep him busy through a protracted process of summoning, arresting, and trying him, in order to prevent him from reporting on and continuing his human rights activities.

Charges: Multiple charges including “assembly and collusion against national security,” “propaganda against the regime,” “dissemination of lies and falsehoods,” and “insulting the Supreme Leader of the Revolution”
Nasrin Sotudeh
Nasrin Sotudeh, a human rights lawyer who who has garnered multiple international awards including the Sakharov Prize, was arrested on June 13, 2018, pursuant to a complaint from an investigative judge in the case of one of the “Girls of Revolution Street” compulsory hejab protesters, whose case Sotudeh had taken on as a lawyer. Sotudeh was charged with “assembly and collusion against national security” for demanding a referendum on Iran’s form of government, “membership in an illegal group” for being a member of the LEGAM campaign against the death penalty, “incitement to corruption and prostitution” for opposing the compulsory hejab and placing a flower on an electrical exchange box on Revolution Street, where women protesters had gathered, “appearing in public without a hejab” by posting videos on social media, “printing falsehoods” for media interviews,” and “disturbing public order” for participating in protest gatherings. Sotudeh was sentenced to 12 years in Prison.

Place of detention: Qarchak Prison

Charges: ؛Disturbing the public mind؛, "Propaganda against the regime", "Membership in organizations disruptive to security", "Assembly and collusion against national security", "Failure to observe the Islamic hijab", and "Incitement to corruption".
Amir Salar Davudi
Attorney Amir Salar Davudi was arrested November 20, 2018 and sentenced to 15 years in prison for administering a channel on the encrypted messaging app Telegram, publishing content critical of the mistreatment and detention of lawyers, and granting interviews to foreign media outlets. Prior to his arrest, he represented political prisoners and prisoners of conscience. In the summer of 2020, it was announced that Davudi had tested positive for coronavirus. Unable to leave on furlough, Davudi has spent his treatment and recovery period behind bars.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Propaganda against the regime,” “espionage and collaboration with hostile governments,” “insulting the founder of the Islamic Republic,” “forming or managing an illegal organization,” and “disturbing the public mind”

Court: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 15

Judge: Abolqasem Salavati
Abbas Lesani
Abbas Lesani, an ethnically Azari Turk civil society activist, is a supporter of non-violent struggle associated with the Azerbaijan National Movement. He was arrested at annual demonstrations at Babak Castle in East Azerbaijan in June/July 2018 and sentenced to 10 years of incarceration at Ardabil Prison on charges of “managing an illegal organization,” “propaganda against the regime,“ and “assembly and collusion against national security;” at appeal, the sentence was increased to 15 years. Since 2003/2004, he has faced multiple instances of arrest and imprisonment for activist activities including making speeches, writing articles, publishing Turkish-language calendars, participating in International Mother Language Day events, and protesting the drying up of Lake Orumieh.

Place of detention: Ardebil Prison

Charges: “Organizing or managing an illegal organization,” “propaganda against the regime,” “assembly and collusion against national security”
Ali Mojdam
Ali Mojdam, a 40-year-old Arab, was arrested February 9, 2019 and held in an IRGC detention center before being transferred to Sheiban Prison in Ahvaz. He was among dozens of Arabs detained that month, some of whom were religious activists and some of whom had been organizing aid for flood victims. On March 31, 2020, Mojdam was injured in a violent crackdown against inmates protesting lack of hygienic supplies and leave permissions during the coronavirus outbreak. He was subsequently transferred to an Information Ministry detention center, where he was barred from contact with his family for 63 days. He is on death row and was transferred to an unknown location on Sep. 20, 2020.

Charges: “Acting against national security, having contacts with foreign media, and forming a group opposed to the Islamic Republic.”
Arash Sadeghi
34-year-old political activist and human rights defender Arash Sadeqi was arrested in late spring 2016. He was sentenced to 19 years in prison for contacts with groups opposed to the Islamic Republic, support for minorities such as Baha’is and Gonabadi Darvishes, and relaying news from inside detention centers where he was held following the contested 2009 presidential election. He developed bone cancer in prison, and has been denied full medical treatment. The spread of COVID-19 at Raja’ishahr Prison threatens Sadeqi’s health.

Place of detention: Raja'ishahr Prison

Charges: “Propaganda against the regime,” “assembly and collusion against national security,” “insulting the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic,” “disturbing the public mind”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branches 28 and 15; Appeals Court of Tehran Province, Branch 54

Judges: Mohammad Moqiseh, Abolqasem Salavati, Purarab
Arjang Davudi
For publishing a manifesto on a secular republic, convening the Iranian Freedom movement, and participating in the making of the documentary “Forbidden Iran,” Arjang Davudi, a 67-year-old political activist, was arrested November 4, 2003 and sentenced to ten years in prison, 74 lashes, and exile to remote prisons in the south. For statements made and letters written to Iranian authorities while in prison, he was sentenced in 2010: initially to death and later to ten years and eight months in prison. Similar activities prompted another death sentence in 2014, which was later reduced to an additional five years in prison. While suffering from diabetes, heart disease, and kidney disease, Davudi has been transferred to Rajai Shahr, Zabol, and Zahedan Prisons in the past four years. Charges: “Propaganda against the regime,” “disturbing the public mind,” “assembly and collusion against national security,” “insulting sanctity,” “insult to the Supreme Leader or Founder of the Islamic Republic”

Place of detention: Zahedan Prison

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branches 15 and 26; Revolutionary Court of Karaj, Branch 1; Supreme Court, Branch 32

Judges: Hassa Zareh Dahnavi (Haddad), Abolqasem Salavati, Assef Alhosseini
Atena Da'emi
In October 2014, 32-year-old human rights activist Atena Da’emi was sentenced to 7 years in prison (5 of which must be served) for protesting against the death penalty and possessing music from a dissident Iranian rap artist. Da’emi’s continued activism behind bars through open letters, statements, and sit-ins (including against the death penalty) has led to abuse and beatings by prison officers, transfer to Qarchak Prison, denial of timely medical care, including for high blood pressure, and two new cases against her. In one of these new cases, she was sentenced to three years and seven months of prison (two years of which must be served), 74 lashes, and a two-year ban from political parties and groups.

Charges: “Insulting the Supreme Leader,” “gathering and colluding [to commit crimes] against national security,” “propaganda against the regime,” and “disrupting public order.”

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Courts: Tehran Revolutionary Court, Branches 24 and 28; Tehran Appeals Court, Branch 36

Judges: Mohammad Moqiseh, Abbas Ali Hozan, Abbas Qomizadeh, and Mohammad Reza Amuzad
Firuz Musalu
Firuz Musalu was suddenly arrested and charged on July 11, 2019, after having withdrawn his membership from a dissident Kurdish political party, obtaining a protective order, and returning to Iran with the cooperation of the IRGC. He is currently being held in Orumieh Prison for undetermined reasons. In July 2020, for reasons unknown, he was transferred to a local IRGC intelligence center, where he was held for a week. There is no legal protocol in place for dealing with individuals who have voluntarily resigned from Kurdish political parties.

Place of detention: Central Prison of Orumieh

Charges: “Membership in a Kurdish opposition party,” “armed uprising”

Court: No trial
Kiumars Marzban
23-year old artist and satirist Kiumars Marzban was arrested on August 26, 2018, one year after returning to Iran to see his ailing grandmother. He was sentenced to 23 years and nine months in prison, subsequently reduced to six years. Marzban taught classes for youth on writing and script writing and had produced content for foreign media outlets that satirized religious and political trends: these programs were raised as evidence against him at trial. After being released on temporary leave amid the coronavirus outbreak, he was returned to prison on June 22, 2020.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Collaborating with a hostile power (the US),” “propaganda against the regime,” “insulting sanctities and officials”

Courts: Tehran Revolutionary Court, Branch 15; Appeals Court of Tehran, Branch 36

Judges: Abolqasem Salavti
Latif Hassani
Latif Hassani, age 50, a doctor of international law and Turkish civic activist, was among a group of five arrested in February 2013 and sentenced to eight years in prison for political organizing with SANAM (the Southern Azerbaijan National Awakening Movement) which promotes Turkism, modernity, and freedom of conscience. While serving his sentence, Hasani has signed open letters decrying widespread 2014 executions in both Kurdistan and Sistan and Baluchestan, ethnic discrimination, and the beating of protesters in November 2019. Despite suffering heart complications and being in the last year of his prison sentence, he has been barred from temporary leave and early release.

Place of detention: Raja'ishahr Prison

Charges: “Forming an illegal group,” “propaganda against the regime”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tabriz, Branch 3; Appeals Court of East Azerbaijan Province

Judges: Hamid Bagherpur, Mohammad Imani Yamchi
Majid Nazari Kondori
Majid Nazari Kondori, 26 years old, was arrested in Esfahan on March 14, 2019 for participating in January 2018 protests against economic pressures and corruption. After being held in a security detention center, he was transferred to Esfahan Central Prison. In winter 2020, he was sentenced, without concrete evidence, to five years in prison and capital punishment. To prove his charges at trial, prosecutors relied solely on bullet wounds he sustained during the protests.

Place of detention: Central Prison of Esfahan

Charges: “Spreading corruption on earth,” “enmity against God,” “armed rebellion by way of bearing arms and disturbing national security”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Esfahan, Branch 2; Supreme Court
Manuchehr Bakhtiari
Manuchehr Bakhtiari father of Puya Bakhtiari, who was shot dead during the November 16, 2019 protest over the gasoline price, was arrested on December 23, 2019 while he was insisting to have a memorial ceremony for his son 40 days after his death, and detained for a month on charges of “Acts Against National Security”. Bakhtiari launched a litigation campaign for his son and communicated with the United Nations about the campaign and his own arrest. He traveled to Kish Island in early July 2020 and protested against the China-Iran 25-year cooperation plan by publishing several videos encouraging his fellow citizens to act similarly. He was then arrested on July 13, 2020 at the Kish Airport and transferred to a detention center of Bandar Abbas Information Office several days later.

Place of detention: ‌Bandar Abbas Ministry of Information's detention center
Faranak Jamshidi
Kurdish citizen and environmental activist Faranak Jamshidi, a member of the Green Party of Kurdistan, was arrested on June 28, 2020. She had previously been detained in fall 2018 during mass arrests of environmental activists and members of the “National Unity Party,” who had, with legal permission, carried out activities such as forming a public relief committee and aid for earthquake victims in Kermanshah. Upon her arrest she was interrogated about her activities and those of her spouse, who was also in custody. Though she has yet to be sentenced or have evidence presented against her, she is still being held in Sanandaj Women’s Prison.

Place of detention: Sanandaj Prison

Charges: “Propaganda against the regime,” “acting against national security” Charges: “Propaganda against the regime,” “acting against national security”
Houman Jokar
Houman Jokar was an environmental activist, treasurer of the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation (PWHF), and the head of an Asiatic cheetah conservation project jointly overseen by the United Nations and the Iranian Department of Environment. On January 24, 2018, he was arrested alongside fellow environmental activists by IRGC intelligence agents and spent 22 months in an IRGC detention center before being tried and sentenced to eight years in prison. In 2019, a four-person committee assembled by the president to investigate the living conditions of detained environmental activists (as well as the death of environmental activist and PWHF President Kavous Seyed-Emami, who died in custody) concluded that there was no evidence to back the accusations against Jokar and his co-defendants.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Espionage of Iranian military sites”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 15; Appeals Court of Tehran

Judges: Abolqasem Salavati
Nilufar Bayani
Nilufar Bayani, a scholar of conservation biology and former member of the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation (PWHF), was arrested alongside fellow environmental activists by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps in February 2018. After 22 months in an IRGC detention center, she was sentenced to 10 years a four-person committee assembled by the president to investigate the situation of the detained activists as well as the death in custody of PWHF President Kavus Seyed-Emami, concluded that there was no evidence of the accusations against them.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Espionage against Iranian military facilities”

Courts: Tehran Revolutionary Court, Branch 15; Tehran Appeals Court

Judges: Abolqasem Salavati
Sepideh Kashani
Summary: Sepideh (Hamideh) Kashani, environmental activist and expert at the “Persian Wildlife Heritage Institute” was arrested by the Revolutionary Guards Corps’ Information Organization on January 24, 2018, along with a group of other environmental activists. After spending 22 months at the Revolutionary Guards’ Detention Center, she was tried and sentenced to 6 years in prison. In 2018, a four-person committee appointed by the President to look into the death in custody of Kavus Seyyed Emami, the head of the “Persian Wildlife Heritage”, and into the conditions of the detained environmental activists, concluded that there was no evidence against the defendants.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Cooperation with an enemy state”

Courts: Tehran Revolutionary Court, Branch 15; Tehran Province Court of Appeals

Judges: Abolghassem Salavati
Abdulvahid Hut
Abdolvahid Hut, a 34-year-old ethnic Baluch, drove passengers for a living. He was arrested on May 1, 2013 in Chabahar for transporting a group of passengers, only one of whom paid fare and was known to him, and sentenced to 15 years in prison and a fine. Subjected to severe torture in prison, he denies the charges against him.

Place of detention: Zahedan Prison

Charges: “Enmity against God”, “possessing ammunition,” “illegally exiting the country”

Courts: Zahedan Revolutionary Court, Branch 1; Appeals Court Two

Judges: Abolfazl Mahgoli
Amin Zaheri Sari
Amin Zaheri Sari, a 22-year-old Arab civil rights and cultural activist, was arrested on November 5, 2018 for participating in cultural, religious, and political gatherings, as well as for his social media content. He was one of many arrested following an armed September 22, 2018 attack on a military parade in Ahvaz. His father and sister were also temporarily detained. Two months prior to his arrest he had been threatened by the Ahvaz Intelligence Office, who demanded he cease his cultural activism.

Place of detention: Sheyban Prison

Charges: “Propaganda against the regime,” “acting against national security,” “riot and rebellion against the Islamic ruler (baghi).”

Court: Ahvaz Revolutionary Court, Branch 2
Hamid Rastbala
Summary: Hamid Rastbala, 36 years old, married, and an adherent of Sunni Islam, was arrested on July 9, 2015, while returning from a religious function. He spent 10 months in solitary confinement at [the city of] Mahhad’s Information Administration’s detention center, and was subsequently transferred to prison. In 2019-2020, Rastbala was sentenced to death without access to an attorney of his choice. He confirmed in a letter that his admissions were a result of months of torture. One of the charges against him is membership in the Al-Forqan Party. At the time when said Party was active – between the years 1992 and 1997 – Rastbala was 7 to 12 years old.

Place of detention: Vakilabad Prison

Charges: “Baghi (“one who rebels against the Imam or Islamic ruler”) through membership in the Salafi group Al-Forqan Party and membership in the Jebhe-ye Hambastegi-e Ahl-e Sunnat-e Iran (“Iranian Sunni Adherents Unity Movement”)”

Courts: Mashhad Revolutionary Court, Branch One

Judges: Mahmud Davudabadi
Kasra Nuri
30-year-old Kasra Nuri, a Master’s student in human rights and an administrator of the Majbuzan-e Nur website (the official outlet of the Gonabadi Darvishes) was beaten and arrested by state agents on February 20, 2018, during a crackdown on Darvishes who had gathered to protest the restriction and potential arrest of their spiritual leader. Nuri was sentenced in absentia to seven and a half years of imprisonment and two years of internal exile to Salas Babajani, Kermanshah Province. Nuri did not attend court sessions owing to insults made to Gonabadi beliefs and the fact that they are denied fundamental rights.

Place of detention: Adelabad Prison

Charges: Propaganda against the regime, disrupting public order, assembly and collusion against national security, insubordination to police officers
Kianush Abbaszadeh
Kianush Abbaszadeh, 30 years old, was arrested on February 20, 2018 amid Darvish gatherings in protest of restrictions placed on their spiritual leader, who they feared would be detained. He was first held in the Shapur Street Criminal Investigations Bureau before being transferred to Greater Tehran Penitentiary. The charges against Abbaszadeh are not known, but are presumably similar to those of fellow Darvishes arrested and tried in connection with the same incident. Abbaszadeh has been sentenced to seven and a half years in prison. During his detention in Ward 5 of Greater Tehran in summer 2020, he and his wardmates fell ill following the introduction of seven new prisoners with COVID-19 symptoms.

Place of detention: The greater Tehran Prison (Fashafuyeh)

Charges: (Presumed) “Disturbing order”; “insubordination to police officers”; “assembly and collusion with intent to disrupt national security”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran
Mowlana Fazlorrahman Kuhi
Mowlana Fazlorrahman Kuhi, [the town of] Pashamag’s Friday Prayer Leader and Head of the city of Sarbaz’ Seminary, was arrested on November 28, 2019, a few months after receiving multiple threats from the region’s Commander of the Revolutionary Guards Corps, and sentenced to 6 years and 4 months in prison. He is a critic of the Regime’s discriminatory practices against Baluch citizens, and protested the region’s Information agents’ violent and insulting conduct toward Sunni seminary students and teachers as well as the regime’s clash with the November 2019 protesters. Mowlavi Kuhi had previously been arrested in 2017-2018.

Place of detention: Zahedan Prison

Charges: Undisclosed

Courts: [City of] Mashhad Special Tribunal for the Clergy
Mashalla Pesarkohan
Released
Mashalla Pesarkohan, a 40-year-old Jewish married father of three, was arrested on May 23, 2019 for a trip to Israel two years prior, which he had taken to visit with his ailing 90-year-old father, and sentenced to three years in prison. While behind bars he developed digestive and nervous problems, and his deteriorating dental health has left him unable to eat the prison’s food. During the 1979 Revolution, tens of thousands of Jews emigrated from Iran to Israel; a law approved by Iran’s parliament, however, has made travel to Israel illegal and punishable by prison.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Entering Israel”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 15; Appeals Court Branch 36

Judges: Abolqasem Salavati, Hassan Baba’i
Mehdi Khatibi
Mehdi Khatibi, a Christian convert, was arrested at home church service in the city of Rasht by agents of the Revolutionary Guards Intelligence Organization on February 23, 2019 and sentenced to five years of imprisonment. While his case was being investigated, he insisted on access to a lawyer of his own choosing; as a result, his bail was increased to an amount he was unable to pay, and he was denied temporary release. Eight other Christian converts were tried as co-defendants in the case. In Iran, converts from Islam usually face judicial action by the state.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “assembly and collusion against national security”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 28

Judge: Mohammad Moqiseh
Mohammad Sharifi Moghaddam
Student activist Mohammad Sharifi Moghaddam Riabi, a 29-year-old materials science and engineering graduate who was an official media coordinator for the Gonabadi Darvishes, was arrested February 20, 2018 amid gatherings of Darvishes unhappy with restrictions being placed on their community and worried their spiritual leader would be detained. Riabi was tried and sentenced in absentia to 12 years in prison (five years suspended), lashings, internal exile, and reduced civic privileges. Citing the closed nature and “unfair conditions” of his case proceedings, he declined to attend his own trial and appeal hearings.

Place of detention: The greater Tehran Prison (Fashafuyeh)

Charges: “Propaganda activity against the regime,” “disrupting public order,” “assembly and collusion with intent to commit crimes against national security”

Court: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 15

Judge: Abolqasem Salavati
Saghar Mohammadi
Saghar Mohammadi was arrested on October 21, 2017, during the “Nineteen-day Reception” organized in order to address the problems facing the city of Birjand’s Baha’i community and to raise assistance funds. In June-July 2019, she was tried without an attorney and sentenced to 4 years in prison and confiscation of the assets and property collected [in the course of the Reception], and has been in prison since January 15, 2020. With the spread of the Corona virus, Mohammadi was furloughed from early March to late May 2020. Upon returning to prison, she was quarantined with several other individuals who had fever and chills; a week later, she had fever, chills, a sore throat, and body aches. The Islamic Republic of Iran does not recognize the Baha’i faith as a religion.

Place of detention: Birjand Prison

Charges: “Membership in the illegal organization of the perverse Bahai’i sect that is disruptive to national security”, “Proselytizing this sect and its organization”

Courts: Birjand Revolutionary Court, Branch Two; South Khorassan Province Court of Appeals

Judges: Hojjat Nabavi
Seyed Jaber Albushokeh
Jaber Albushokeh, a member of the Al-Hiwar Cultural Institute, was arrested in March 2011 just before the five-year anniversary of demonstrations led by the Arab community of Ahvaz sparked by a leaked government letter which mentioned “the necessity of changing the demographic landscape of the region.” Protesters were met with mass arrests and violent crackdowns, and Albushokeh was arrested and sentenced to life in Ahvaz’ Karoun Prison. He was among prisoners who, in the spring of 2020, protested the spread of the coronavirus in prison and officials’ decision to not grant temporary leave. Albushokeh, who suffers from depression, was beaten severely; he was not given treatment, and his wounds are now infected.

Place of detention: Sheyban Prison

Charges: “Enmity against God,” “spreading corruption on earth,” “acting against national security,” and “propaganda against the regime”

Courts: Ahvaz Revolutionary Court, Branch 2; Supreme Court, Branch 32

Judges: Seyd Bagher Mousavi, Reza Farajollahi
Mohammad Eslamdust
Mohammad (Shahruz) Eslamdust is a Christian convert who served a church in the city of Rasht. On February 15, 2019, he was arrested at a home service by IRGC intelligence forces. Shahruz’s bail amount was increased when he insisted on the right to choose his own lawyer during trial proceedings, barring him from temporary release as he awaited the outcome for himself and his eight co-defendants, also Christian converts. He was sentenced to five years’ imprisonment and subsequently transferred to Evin prison.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Assembly and collusion with intent to commit crimes against national security”

Courts: Tehran Revolutionary Court, Branch 28

Judges: Mohammad Moqiseh
Sheyda Abedi
Sheida Abedi was arrested on October 21, 2017 during a “19-day banquet” ceremony, which was held to raise funds and resolve issues being faced by the Baha’i community in Birjand. Without a lawyer, she was tried and sentenced in July 2019 to forfeiture of her personal belongings and three years in prison, where she has remained since January 15, 2020. Amid the coronavirus outbreak, she was released on temporary leave from mid-March to May of 2020. Upon her return from leave she was quarantined alongside a group of prisoners with fever and chills; one week later she suffered the same symptoms herself, in addition to sore throat and body aches. The Islamic Republic of Iran does not officially recognize the Baha’i religion.

Place of detention: Birjand Prison

Charges: “Membership in the illegal security-disrupting organizations of the erroneous Baha’i sect,” “propaganda against the regime through Baha’i propaganda”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Birjand, Branch 2; Appeals Court of South Khorasan Province

Judges: Hojjat Nabavi
Vahid Khamushi
38-year-old industrial designer and technician Vahid Khamushi, a Gonabadi Darvish who participated in gatherings that lead to the “Golestan Haftom” incident in Tehran — in which Darvishes protested in response to restrictions being placed on their community, and concerns that their spiritual leader would be detained — was arrested on February 20, 2018 and sentenced to 12 years in prison (five suspended) and two years of exile in Rayen. Prior to his arrest, Khamushi sustained a broken wrist and was injured by shotgun fire from security forces. The shotgun pellets, which have yet to be removed from Khamushi’s body, have become infected and are causing him pain.

Place of detention: Vakilabad Prison

Charges: “Propaganda against the regime,” “disrupting public order,” “assembly and collusion against national security,” “insubordination to police officers”

Court: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 15

Judge: Abolqasem Salavati
Yalda Firouzian
Yalda Firouzian, a Baha’i, was arrested on April 30, 2019 and held in solitary confinement for months before being sentenced to 2.5 years in prison. The only matters discussed at her trial were activities with Baha’i organizations, and her verdict cited only her use of introductory books and CDs at religious gatherings. In the substandard hygienic conditions of Semnan prison, Firouzian has developed tachycardia, severe stress, and skin irritation. Iran’s Constitution does not officially recognize the Baha’i religion.

Place of detention: Semnan Prison

Charges: “Membership in an illegal group with intent to disrupt national security,” “being party to acts against national security in support of opposition groups”

Courts: Semnan Revolutionary Court, Branch 1; Appeals Court of Semnan Province

Judges: Mohammad Ali Rostami
Zahra Hosseini
Zahra Hosseini, a 25-year-old Sunni Arab and mother of two children, has been held in temporary detention since October/November 2018. Though no specific charge has been mentioned in her case, security officials claim her husband is a member of the Islamic State; no information regarding him is available. Hosseini spent five months in the Ministry of Information detention center in Ahvaz, where she was subjected to abusive treatment. Interrogators demanded she confess to being involved with the Islamic State herself; Hosseini rejected the claim, saying she was simply a Sunni Muslim. Hosseini is currently held at Sepidar Prison, Ahvaz, where hygiene and nutrition conditions are minimal.

Place of detention: Sepidar Prison
Maryam Akbari Monfared
Maryam Akbari Monfared, a 45-year-old mother of three, was arrested on December 31, 2009 following protests that broke out over presidential election results. One of her sisters and three of her brothers were executed in the 1980s for their collaboration with the Mujahedin-e Khalq (MKO). For her telephone correspondence with siblings who were members of the MKO in Iraq, Akbari Monfared was sentenced to 15 years in prison without the possibility of furlough. While serving her sentence in Evin Prison, she developed rheumatic, bladder, and thyroid problems, but has been deprived of medical treatment. In May 2016, she was threatened with internal exile and additional prison time for speaking out against the regime for the execution of her family members.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Enmity against God through membership in th the MKO,” “assembly and collusion,” “propaganda against the regime”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 15; Supreme Court, Branch 38

Judges: Abolqasem Salavati, Fatemi
Mohammad Ali Mansuri
Mohammad Ali (Piruz) Mansuri is among political prisoners who were incarcerated in the 1980s. His sister and her child are members of the Mojahedin-e Khalq organization. Mansuri was arrested in 2007 for participating in a memorial held for the victims of the 1988 mass killing of political prisoners, and has been in prison ever since, without any leave. Pursuant to the new Islamic Penal Code, Mansuri has the right to appeal his sentence; however, not only has his request for appeal not been granted, but he has been subjected to a new sentence for signing declarations and letters in support of workers’ and teachers’ protests. In addition to suffering from Hepatitis B, he has developed a stomach illness. He also suffered from headaches and dizziness for a time.

Place of detention: Raja'ishahr Prison

Charges: "Waging war against God” through contact and cooperation with the Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MKO); “assembly and collusion against the regime”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 15 and 28

Judges: Mohammad Moqiseh, Abolqasem Salavati
Mohammad Reza Hashemi Nabi
Mohammad Reza Hashemi-Nabi, a married 52-year old with dual Iranian-British citizenship, was detained on December 23, 2016 at Imam Khomeini airport. Hashemi-Nabi was returning to Iran for the first time in 13 years to see his father, who had cancer. Since his arrest four years ago, he has been held in legal limbo in Evin prison. In the early nineties, he spent six months in solitary confinement for political activism.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Acting against national security by way of collaborating with a foreign group or population”

Court: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 15

Judge: Abolqasem Salavati
Mohammad Saber Malak Raisi
Mohammad Saber Malak Ra’is, a Sunni Muslim and ethic Baluch, was arrested 10 years ago at the age of 17 on the charge of illegally exiting the country. Following a year of detention and interrogation, during which he was made to give a forced confession, he was sentenced to 15 years’ incarceration and exile. He was taken hostage in connection with his brother’s activities outside the country, and his second verdict was issued because of a letter he wrote to the UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran regarding the unfairness of his previous sentence and the misconduct of Ardebil prison authorities. He suffers from certain illnesses and has been denied medical care.

Place of detention: Ardebil Prison

on charges of “war against God” and one year of incarceration for “disturbing the public mind and propaganda against the regime.”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Zhedan, Branch 1 - Revolutionary Court of Ardebil, branch 101 and Criminal Court Two of Ardebeil

Judges: Khodadadi, Abbas Feizollahi
Mojgan Kavusi
Mojgan Kavusi, a Kurdish writer and scholar of the Yarsan faith, lived in Noshahr, Mazandaran. She was arrested November 18, 2019 for posting to Instagram an image of those killed during that months’ protests in Kurdistan, with the caption “silence is treason.” She was tried without a lawyer. On May 19, 2020, she was transferred to Noshahr Prison to serve her term, and later to Evin. After protesting prison authorities’ lack of transparency regarding the coronavirus outbreak in prisons, she was barred from communicating with her family for a week. Her brief membership in the Kurdistan Democratic Party six years prior, which had previously been pardoned, also figured among her charges.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Propaganda against the regime,” “provoking people to disrupt national security”

Courts: Noshahr Revolutionary Court, Appeals Court of Mazandaran
Molavi Nuraddin Kashani
Molavi Nuraddin Kashani, a 48-year-old Sunni Baloch and religious scholar, Qor’an instructor, and school principal in Shandak village, Zahedan, has been stuck in legal limbo in Zahedan Prison since his summer 2013 arrest. During this time he has been accused and tried multiple times for both murder and “enmity against God” (moharebeh). He has been absolved of the murder charge, and is set to be tried once again for moharebeh. He has had to wait one year between his court hearings, each of which has taken place before a different branch and judge. While in prison he was forcibly shaved (contrary to his religious beliefs) and denied the right to wear Baloch clothing or perform his own religious rites and prayers.

Place of detention: Zahedan Prison

Charges: “Acting against national security,” “enmity against God through membership in an anti-regime group”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Zahedan, Branch 2 ; Special Court for Clerics

Judge: Mahdaviyan
Morteza Parhizgar
Mashhad resident Morteza Parhizgar was among the first protesters who took to the streets to protest government corruption and mounting economic pressures on December 28, 2017. These protests gained momentum and spread across the country. On December 30, Parhizgar was arrested and had two case files assembled against him for protest activity -- one ordinary criminal, and one national security -- which were never consolidated. He was cumulatively sentenced to nine years in prison and 74 lashes.

Place of detention: Vakilabad Prison

Charges: “Insulting the president,” “disturbing public order,” “assembly and collusion,” “arson of police motorcycles with intent to oppose the regime”

Courts: Criminal Court of Mashhad, Branch 131; Revolutionary Court of Mashhad, Branch 4; Appeals Court of Khorasan Razavi Province, Branch 27

Judge: Hadi Mansuri
Rezvaneh Ahmad Khanbeigi
Rezvaneh Ahmadkhanbeigi, 30 years old, was arrested and tried on November 17, 2019 after taking part in protests against increased fuel costs. She had previously been prosecuted at the beginning of 2019 for taking part in demonstrations demanding freedom for political prisoners including her husband, imprisoned at the time for criticizing the laws of the Islamic Republic: Ahmadkhanbeigi was tried for “propaganda against the regime” for writing slogans and distributing tracts. Ahmadkhanbeigi has been sentenced to five years in Evin Prison. She suffers from epilepsy, but has been denied regular access to medication and treatment services.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Assembly and collusion to commit crimes against internal and external security;” “Propaganda against the regime of the Islamic Republic of Iran.”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 24 and 26, Tehran Court of Appeal, Branch 36

Judges: Mohammadreza Amuzadeh, Iman Afshari
Narges Mohammadi
Released
Narges Mohammadi, 48 years old, is the assistant director of the Defenders of Human Rights Center. She was arrested on May 5, 2015. She was sentenced to 15 years of prison (10 of which are enforceable) for founding the LEGAM “Step by Step Against the Death Penalty” campaign, meeting with EU diplomats regarding the human rights situation in Iran, and taking part in protests outside prisons. After her protests against the killing of protesters in November 2019, she was transferred from Evin to Zanjan Prison by agents who beat her. She suffers from acute respiratory disease and has contracted the novel coronavirus from a COVID-19 positive individual who entered the ward. She is being denied treatment.

Place of detention: Zanjan Prison

Charges: “directing an illegal organization,” “propaganda against the regime,” and “assembly against national security”
Parastu Mo'ini
Parastu Mo'ini was arrested along with her mother and two other people and transferred to Evin Prison on February 24, 2020. Moeini was pressured during interrogations to give a televised confession. She did not have access to a defense attorney of her choice. In April 2020, Mo'ini was exiled without a verdict to Qarchak Prison. Her mother had herself served prison time for political activism in previous decades. Her grandfather was executed in 1981 on charges of supporting the Mojahedin-e Khalq (MEK), a militant opposition group. Mo'ini contracted the novel coronavirus in mid-July 2020 and was placed in isolation in prison a few days later, without medical treatment.

Place of detention: Qarchak Prison

Charges: “Collaboration with an organization (MEK) opposed to the Islamic Republic”
Sam Rajabi
Sam Rajabi, an environmental activist and former member of the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation, was arrested in 2018 and sentenced to six years in prison. Rajabi is one of many environmental activists who have been arrested and convicted across Iran in recent years. He suffers asthma and digestive issues and underwent surgery in April/May 2020. Testing conducted following the surgery showed that he had contracted the novel coronavirus. In 2019/2020, a four-person committee empaneled by the president and made up of cabinet members tasked with investigating the death in custody of Foundation head Kavous Seyed-Emami and the situation of the imprisoned environmentalists concluded that no evidence against these activists existed.

Place of detention:Evin Prison

Charges: "assembly and collusion against national security"
Samaneh Norouz Moradi
Samaneh Norouz Moradi, a 34-year-old member of the “Campaign for the Return of the Prince (Reza Pahlavi),” has been sentenced to three years and nine months of prison time on the charges of “acting against national security,” “propaganda against the regime,” and “insult to the founder of the Revolution and Ayatollah Khamenei.” She suffers from lupus, diabetes, and breast cancer and has been denied medical services. Her temporary release was cut short following the publication of a video in which she thanked those who had covered news of her arrest, including Yasmin Pahlavi, wife of Reza Pahlavi. Given problems with her immune system, COVID-19 represents a deadly threat to Norouz Moradi. On Oct. 21, 2020, he was taken out of prison to meet with his lawyer but instead, he was transferred to Lakan Prison in Rasht.

Place of detention: Lakan Prison

Charges: “Assembly and collusion and acting against national security,” “propaganda against the regime,” “insulting the founder of the Revolution,” “insulting Ayatollah Khamenei”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 26

Judge: Iman Afshari
Sepideh Qolian
Sepideh Qolian, a 26-year old university student and labor activist from Dezful, was arrested at a worker’s protest at the Haft Tappeh Sugar Company on November 18, 2018. She has been sentenced to 18 years of prison (five of which are enforceable) on charges of “assembly and collusion with intent of acting against national security” for participating in labor demonstrations, “membership in the Gam group” for her work with the worker’s journal Gam, and “publishing falsehoods” for publicizing news of her own torture in detention. Qolian had been freed on bail, but reported to Evin prison to serve her sentence on June 21, 2020. Islamic of Iran Broadcasting broadcast a documentary featuring a forced confession of Qolian’s in December 2019/ January 2020.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Assembly and collusion with intent of acting against national security,” membership in the Gam [workers’ rights] group,” “propaganda against the regime,” “publishing falsehoods”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 28, Tehran Court of Appeal

Judge: Mohammad Moqiseh
Sharmin Meymandinejad
Released on bail
Sharmin Meymandinejad, the founder of the Imam Ali Popular Students Relief Society (IAPSRS), an NGO that has provided humanitarian services to women and children for the past 20 years with the help of ten thousand volunteers, was arrested on June 21, 2020. He is being held in solitary confinement and does not have access to a lawyer. Iran’s Ministry of Interior has since asked community leaders to restructure the IAPSRS. In March of 2019, after delivering aid to those affected by widespread flooding, members of the IAPSRS received threats from Iranian security forces, who later hacked some of the NGO’s online accounts. Meymandinejad suffers from heart problems, degenerative joint disease, and a kidney infection.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: No formal charges; officials claim he was arrested for personal activities
Shirahmad Shirani
Shirahmad Shirani, a 37-year-old Baloch political activist, was arrested June 3, 2010. He spent more than two years in solitary confinement without visitation in Ministry of Intelligence custody before being sentenced, without the opportunity to plead his case, to 22 years in internal exile in Ardabil Prison. Now 10 years into his sentence, he suffers from kidney disease and heart problems but is being deprived of medical care. Shirani was sentenced to one additional year of imprisonment following his letters in protest of discrimination and injustice against the Baluch community and concerns about the coronavirus outbreak in prison.

Place of detention: Ardebil Prison

Charges: “Acting against national security through enmity against God,” “collaboration with Baloch anti-government groups,”

Court: Revolutionary Court Judge: Vahid Mahdavi Rad
Shura Fekri
Shura Fekri, a mountain climber, poet, and former student activist, was transferred to Amol Prison on May 18, 2020 to serve a 5-year sentence for having participated in a January 12, 2020 memorial gathering for those lost in the Ukranian Airlines incident. When the plane in question was shot down by an IRGC missile on January 8, 2020, Iranian authorities responded with measures to conceal the truth by placing limitations on funeral ceremonies, obstructing investigations into the causes of the accident, and creating legal and security obstacles for those who participated in victims’ memorial services.

Place of detention: Amol Prison

Charge: “Propaganda against the regime”

Court: Revolutionary Court of Amol, Branch 1
Zahra Jamali
Zahra Jamali, a womens’ rights activist, was arrested in Tehran on August 24, 2019 and sentenced to six years in prison; by forfeiting her right to appeal, she had her sentence reduced to three and a half years. In the summer of 2019, she signed a statement calling for the Supreme Leader to step down in light of “oppression of women and dissenting voices.” She has also demanded, via a video post on social media, that Iran hold free elections. During the 2018 funeral proceedings for Alireza Shir Ali Mohammad, a political prisoner who was killed in detention, she declared that the government was responsible for his death and implored her countrymen not to remain silent. Jamali, who suffers from ovarian cysts and a mass that has developed on her heel, is being deprived of medical care.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Assembly and collusion against national security,” “propaganda against the regime”

Court: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 26

Judge: Iman Afshari
Zeinab Jalalian
Zeinab Jalalian, 38 years old, traveled to Iraq at the age of 18 and was active with the women’s organization of the Kurdistan Free Life Party from 2004/2005. She was arrested in 2008 and held for months in solitary confinement. She was sentenced to death on charges of “armed action against national security” and “war against God,” on the basis of unclear evidence; this sentence was eventually commuted to life in prison. Prison authorities have exerted pressure on Jalalian, and denied her proper medical treatment despite her vision problems, a corneal growth, and severe migraines. The United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention has declared her arrest arbitrary and called for her release. In 2020, Jalalian contracted the novel coronavirus in Qarchak Prison. Following her publication of an open letter protesting poor prison conditions on June 23, 2020, she was transferred to Kerman Prison and to Dizelabad Prison on Sep. 24, 2020.

Place of detention: Dizelabad Prison

Charges: Illegally exiting the country, membership in the Kurdistan Free Life Party (PJAK), armed action against the Islamic Republic of Iran

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Kermanshah, Court of Appeal of Kermanshah Province, Supreme Court
Ja'far Azimzadeh
Ja’far Azimzadeh, a civil society activist and chairman of the Free Labor Union’s board of directors, was arrested on April 30, 2014 for collecting 40 thousands signatures to increase the minimum wage and organizing protests and sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment. He was held in Evin prison from January 29, 2019 until August 16, 2020 when, under the false pretense of transfer to a hospital to address heart and pulmonary problems, he was instead transferred to Raja’ishahr Prison. In prison, he protested against the non-payment of prisoners’ medical costs by the Prison Organization and a lawsuit against labor activists; he was charged with “Propaganda against the regime” a second time and sentenced to another 13 months of imprisonment. Azimzadeh has been so far deprived of full access to his medications.

Place of detention: Raja’ishahr Prison

Charges: “Propaganda against the regime”,“disrupting public order”, “[illegal] gathering, conspiracy, and propaganda against the Islamic Republic”, and “disrupting public opinion.”

Courts: Tehran Revolutionary Court, Branches 15 and 26; Tehran Appeal Court, branches 36 and 54.

Judges: Abolqasem Salavati and Iman Afshari.
Esmaeil Abdi
Esmaeil Abdi, a 45-year-old math teacher and unionist, was arrested on November 9, 2016 and sentenced to six years in prison. Abdi was among the participants in silent protests demanding higher budget allocations for education, an increase in teachers’ poverty-line wages, and an end to punishment and imprisonment of fellow activist teachers. He was released on furlough near the end of his term, but was sent back to prison to serve a ten-year sentence when a 2010 case relating to interviews he gave to foreign media outlets was revived. Abdi is asthmatic.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Propaganda against the regime,” “gathering and colluding [to commit crimes] against national security,” and “cooperation with hostile states.”

Courts: Tehran Revolutionary Court, Branch 15 and 26; Tehran Appeals Court, Branch 36.

Judges: Mohammad Moqiseh and Abolqasem Salavati.
Hashem Khastar
Hashem Khastar, a 66-year-old agricultural engineer and current head of the Mashhad Teacher’s Union, was arrested August 11, 2019 after signing the “Statement of 14 Political Activists” calling for the resignation of the Supreme Leader. For this, as well as his statements to media outlets and participation in teachers’ protests, he was sentenced to 16 years in prison and three years in exile. Khastar was previously detained on October 27, 2018 and forcibly admitted to Ibnsina Hospital’s psychiatric department without any evidence of medical need. He was also arrested in 2004 and 2007 for participating in union strikes and protests. He has high blood pressure and digestive diseases requiring surgery. Due to the risk posed by the coronavirus outbreak in prisons, Khastar put in a request for medical furlough, which was granted by the forensic medical office with a conditional prosecutorial action. He was sent to the forensic medical office in June 2020.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: “Insulting the founder of the Islamic Republic, sanctities, and the Supreme Leader”; “disturbing the public mind”; “participating in illegal assemblies”

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Mashhad, Branch 4; Appeals Court of Khorasan Razavi Province, Branch 35

Judge: Mansuri
Kylie Moore Gilbert
Released
British-Australian national, Kylie Moore-Gilbert, a lecturer in Islamic Studies at the University of Melbourne, was arrested in September 2018 after attending an academic conference, at which she was invited to speak about Shi’ism. After a year in detention without access to a telephone, or lawyer, having been provided only minimal provisions, she was sentenced to 10 years in prison on charges of “espionage”. The reason for the alleged charges is not clear; however, according to Moore-Gilbert, the interrogators asked her to spy for them. Moore-Gilbert is under severe psychological stress and has been hospitalized several times at the prison’s clinic/ hospital. On July 24, 2020 she was transferred to Qarchak Prison in which minimum hygiene standards are met and there is a COVID-19 outbreak. She was in quarantine for only 2 days and was then transferred to a ward. She was transferred to Evin Prison on Oct. 30, 2020

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charge: Espionage

Court: Revolutionary Court Tehran
Mohammad Habibi
Mohammad Habibi, a teacher and member of the board of directors of the Tehran Teachers’ Union, was arrested on May 10, 2018 at an anti-privatization teacher’s protest in defense of free education. Charged with “assembly and collusion to commit crimes against national security” and “propaganda against the regime,” he was sentenced to seven and a half years of prison and 74 lashes. Habibi had published writings critical of Iran’s educational system and participated in other teachers’ demonstrations. He suffers from a bone tumor in his left forearm and a lung infection, though prison officials have refrained from paying treatment costs. In April/May 2020, Habibi was fired from his teaching position by the Ministry of Education.

Place of detention: Greater Tehran Prison

Charges: Assembly and collusion to commit crimes against national security.
Ahmad Reza Jalali
Ahmad Reza Jalali, a post-doctoral graduate in medicine, university professor and crisis management researcher, was arrested on 24 April 2016 while visiting Iran to participate in a scientific conference at the invitation of two universities. After nine months he was given a death sentence. The Iranian government has not responded to repeated requests from the United Nations, including its working group on arbitrary arrest. In prison, Jalali has developed gastrointestinal disease, lowered blood cell count, a weakened immune system, severe weight loss, and possibly leukemia. In October 2018, he underwent surgery but was taken back to prison the following day.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: "Spreading Corruption on earth," "espionage", "collaboration with a hostile government"

Courts: Islamic Revolutionary Court, Branch 15; Supreme Court, Branch 33

Judges: Abolqasem Salavati
Nahid Fathalian
Nahid Fathalian, a retired teacher and a teachers' union activist, was arrested on 14 April 2020 and taken to one of the Intelligence Ministry's solitary confinement cells in Evin Prison. Her arrest was related to her participation in the nationwide rallies of November 2019 to protest the rise in fuel prices as well as her distribution of posters and flyers related to the situation of teachers and pensioners. Fathalian is being detained without a court order. However, it is not clear why she was not granted furlough owing to the Covid-19 outbreak, in accordance with judiciary directives.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: "Cooperation with one of the opposition groups (Mujahedin-e Khalq of Iran - MKO)," "assembly and collusion," "propaganda against the regime," "destruction of state property"

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 15

Judges: Abolqasem Salavati
Amir Hossein Moradi
Amir Hossein Moradi, a physics student from Sharif University of Technology and silver medalist of the National Astronomy Olympiad, was beaten and arrested by security forces at his family home on 10 April 2020. International organizations, including the Committee of Concerned Scientists, have protested his arrest. Moradi does not have access to a lawyer. Amir Hossein Moradi, a physics student from Sharif University of Technology and silver medalist of the National Astronomy Olympiad, was beaten and arrested by security forces at his family home on 10 April 2020. International organizations, including the Committee of Concerned Scientists, have protested his arrest. Moradi does not have access to a lawyer.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: "Collaboration with the Mujahedin-e Khalq of Iran (MKO)"; "possessing explosive materials"

Courts: Detention without trial
Emad Beit Mash'al
Emad Beit-Mash'al, a 25-year-old Arab citizen, was arrested in September 2015 and sentenced to seven years in prison. The reasons for his arrest and the charges against him are not clear. It has only been said that he had called for a protest rally. Beit-Mash'al suffers from diabetes. During his interrogation he was admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz as a result of severe torture aimed at extracting a false confession.

Place of detention: Sheiban Prison, Ahvaz

Charges: "Propaganda against the regime", "calling for a protest rally"

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Ahvaz
Esma'il Vafa'i
Esma'il Vafa'i, a 37-year-old Baluch citizen, was arrested in April 2005, a month after the Tassuki attack in Sistan and Baluchestan Province by Jondollah forces in which several civilians and military personnel were killed. After three years in solitary confinement cells of the Ministry of Intelligence detention center, without meeting his family and without access to a lawyer, he was sentenced to 22 years in prison and exile to Ahvaz Prison, on charges of collaborating with his brother, who was in contact with Jondollah.

Place of detention: Sheiban Prison, Ahwaz

Charges: “Enmity against God” (moharebeh)

Courts: Unknown
Hamid Manafi Nadarali
Hamid Manafi Naderali, a Turkish civil activist, was arrested in March 2014 during International Mother Language Day celebrations and sentenced to 10 years in prison and two years in exile. His prison sentence was commuted to two years. He has been held in Evin Prison since 21 July 2020. Manafi Naderali suffers from kidney stones. He was admitted to hospital on 26 August 2020 when suffering from acute pain and was returned to prison without access to adequate medical facilities. He was given furlough for two weeks on 16 September 2020. Manafi Naderali was also arrested and tried several times in 2011 for, among other acts, protesting the drying up of Lake Orumieh.

Place of detention: Evin Prison

Charges: "Organizing a gathering to disrupt national security"

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 1; Appeals Court of Tehran Province, Branch 54

Judges: Hasan Babaei, Zanjani
Kamran Sheikheh
Kamran Sheikheh, a Sunni Kurdish citizen, was arrested on 7 December 2009 and sentenced to death in connection with the murder of a religious scholar. Prior to his arrest, he attended religious meetings and engaged in religious missionary work. Sheikheh was severely tortured during his detention and both he and his lawyer were barred from presenting a defense in court. Sheikheh and his six co-defendants were first charged with the murder of a soldier in 2008, and subsequently with participation in the 2010 Mahabad parade bombing. During their detention, other individuals were arrested and convicted in connection with these cases. Sheikeh spent over one year in solitary confinement in various prisons.

Place of detention: Raja’ishahr Prison

Charges: "Membership in jihadist Salafi groups," "participation in murder," "spreading corruption on earth," "acting against national security," "propaganda against the regime"

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Karaj, Branch 9; Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 28; Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 15; ; Appeals Court of West Azerbaijan Province, Branch 12; State Supreme Court, Branch 41

Judges: Mohammad Moqiseh, Abolqasem Salavati, Amin Naseri, Ali Razini
Majid Tibash
Majid Tibash, a Kurdish citizen, was arrested on 26 December 2018, prior to completing his Masters' thesis. He was sentenced to four years in prison. Tibash had already been suspended from university, summoned, and arrested several times for engaging in student activism as well as for his speeches and poetry. He has been in prison since 8 July 2019. Tibash's request for furlough has been rejected despite the fact that he is the guardian of his two brothers, who suffer from bipolar disorder and autism. He also requires a followup surgery for his lipoma and has mild asthma and diabetes. Place of detention: Orumieh Prison

Charges: "Membership in the Kurdistan Democratic Party", "propaganda against the regime"

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Orumieh, Branch 3; Appeals Court of West Azerbaijan Province, Branch 1

Judges: Najafizadeh
Marjan Davari
Marjan Davari, a 53-year-old graduate of graphic design, translator of esoteric science books and researcher at the Institute for Metaphysical Studies and Research of Rah-e Ma'refat (Road to Wisdom), was arrested with her husband, the manager of the Institute, on 12 October 2015, as the Institute was shut down. Her husband was executed in 2017 in connection with promoting the novel mystical movement "Eckankar". After her two death sentences were overturned, Davari was given a sentence of 75 years in prison (25 years of which must be served). In some cases, the security services of the Islamic Republic convict dissidents and prisoners of conscience on charges such as smuggling, sexual crimes, and other general offenses.

Place of detention: Qarchak Prison, Varamin

Charges: "Illicit relationship," "accessory to three counts of adultery in a rape case," "assembly and collusion against the regime," "membership in Eckankar"

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branches 15, 23 and 24; Criminal Court of Tehran Province, Branch 1; State Supreme Court, Branch 47

Judges: Abolqasem Salavati, Mohammad Mehdi Shahmirzadi, Amuzadeh
Maryam Alishahi
Maryam Alishahi, married, was arrested with her son during nationwide protests over fuel price hikes in November 2019, and sentenced to nine years in prison (five years of which must be served). Alishahi was first taken to one of the security detention centers in Tehran and transferred to Qarchak Prison in Varamin after interrogations.

Place of detention: Qarchak Prison, Varamin

Charges: "Assembly and collusion," "insulting the Supreme Leader," "disrupting public order"

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 24; Appeals Court of Tehran Province, Branch 36

Judges: Mohammad Reza Amuzadeh, Seyed Ahmad Zargar
Said Sangar
Sa’id Sangar, a 47-year-old Kurdish political activist, was arrested on 31 August 2000. He was initially sentenced to the death penalty without specific evidence; this sentence was ultimately commuted to 18 years in prison. However, he remained in prison two years following the end of his sentence for no reason. On 11 April 2020, he was given another sentence of 15 years in prison for engaging in human rights activities in prison, such as documenting prison conditions in his notebook and sending them to the media and human rights organizations.

Place of detention: Orumieh Prison

Charges: "Enmity against God (moharebeh) through membership in the Mojahedin-e Khalq of Iran (MKO) and anti-government groups"

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Sanandaj, Branch 1; Revolutionary Court of Orumieh, Branch 2; Appeals Court of Sanandaj, Branch 4

Judges: Ali Sheiklu, Fatemi
Zohreh Sarv
Zohreh Sarv, 34 years old, was arrested on 24 December 2019 for her activities on Instagram and taken to the Revolutionary Guards' Intelligence detention center in Tehran. She was sentenced to three years in prison and four months of forced labor in the Basij Organization, and ordered to study the interpretation of the Hujurat sura of the Quran. Sarv has been held in Varamin's Qarchak Prison since 11 January 2020. She contracted Covid-19 in the prison's public ward in May 2020.

Place of detention: Qarchak Prison, Varamin

Charges: "Insulting the Supreme Leader"; "propaganda against the regime"; "assembly and collusion"

Courts: Revolutionary Court of Tehran, Branch 26

Judges: Iman Afshari