Abdorrahman Boroumand Center

for Human Rights in Iran

Omid, a memorial in defense of human rights in Iran
One Person’s Story

Nika Shakarami


Age: 17
Nationality: Iran
Religion: Presumed Muslim
Civil Status: Single


Date of Killing: September 21, 2022
Location of Killing: Tehran, Tehran Province, Iran
Mode of Killing: Other extrajudicial method
Charges: Unknown charge

About this Case

Nika Shakarami was talented and full of life. Her dream was to live in a country where she will be free.  She was also known to be fearless, which worried her friends and family. )

The information regarding the extrajudicial execution of Ms. Nika Shakarami, daughter of Nasrin and Abbas Shakarami, was obtained through interviews conducted by the Abdorrahman Boroumand Center (ABC) with an informed source on three different occasions (March 24 and November 9, 2023, and January 22, 2024). To compile a comprehensive case, various sources were consulted, including the family members' social media pages, the archive of the IRIB 20:30 TV program (Wednesday, October 5, 2022), the investigative report by CNN news in English (October 7, 2022), the German-language newspaper “Die Zeit” (November 18, 2022), and the websites of IRIB news agency (October 5, 2022), Mizan news agency (October 26 and November 23, 2022), Fars news agency (October 4, 2022), Tasnim news agency (October 4, 2022), Voice of America (October 3 and 5, 2022), Independent Persian (October 15, 2022), Radio Zamaneh (September 30, 2022), Kayhan London (October 4, 2022), BBC Persian (October 10, 2022), Etemad newspaper (October 10, 2022), Radio Farda (October 6, 2022), and Euronews (December 27, 2022).

Nika Shakarami was born on October 2, 2005, in Khorramabad, Lorestan province (Mizan news agency, November 23, 2022). She, along with her family, moved from Khorramabad to Karaj in the summer of 2019. Nika completed middle school in a leading government school in the Fardis Karaj neighborhood. For her high school education in painting, she attended Vahdat Vocational School in Fardis Karaj during the coronavirus pandemic (ABC interview, March 24, 2023).

In 2021, Nika moved from Karaj to Tehran. She worked at a café near Enghelab Square. (ABC interview with an informed source on January 22, 2024, Radio Zamaneh, September 30, 2022). During the last year of her life, she resided with her aunt, Mrs. Atash Shakarami, in a house near Keshavarz Boulevard in Tehran. Mrs. Atash Shakarami, also a painter, played a significant role in nurturing Nika's interest in painting. “Nika was the second child of the family, and had several artistic qualifications. She was good at drawing, sketching, designing, and ….. She was even good at cooking. She was so good at drawing that could easily draw a portrait of a person at a very first encounter.” (London Kayhan website, October 04, 2022).

Nika's parents were both from Khorramabad, one of the cities in Lorestan province. Nika’s father passed away in 2014 due to heart disease when Nika was only 8 years old. According to a family member, Nika's father was well-liked among his relatives. He worked as a contractor and led a modest and ordinary life. Nika's mother, Nasrin Shakarami, is also an artist and a housewife. All members of Nika's mother's family are involved in art (Kayhan London, October 4, 2022).

Family members and friends of Nika, including her mother, sister, aunt, and friends from school and social media, have portrayed her as an independent, joyful, and energetic teenager. They described her as being "full of intelligence, ability, and talent," navigating the paths of independence to alter the societal norms and "arrangement of the walls." Growing up in an environment without common social constraints, Nika was sensitive to political and social matters. She dreamed of leading an independent life and aspired to emigrate from Iran. Nika opposed the compulsory hijab and possessed a fighter's spirit, quick to anger. Described as motivated and bold, she was known for encouraging her friends. Following the onset of Jina (Mahsa) Amini's protests in the fall of 2022, Nika actively joined the ranks of the protesters. (Voice of America October 5, 2022), (BBC Persian and Etemad newspaper October 10, 2022). According to her mother, Mrs. Nasrin Shakarami, "Nika opposed the guidance patrol (Islamic religious police force). As a teenager, she resisted the pressure exerted by the patrol officers on her and her peers. Her motivation for attending protest gatherings was centered around the issues of the guidance patrol and the demands of women and youth. Despite my repeated requests for her not to go to the rallies, her courage led her to actively participate in the demonstrations." (Etemad newspaper, October 10, 2022).

2022 (Mahsa Amini) Protest background

Nationwide protests were sparked by the death in custody of 22-year old Kurdish woman Jina (Mahsa) Amini on September 16, 2022. Amini had been arrested by the morality police in Tehran for improper veiling on September 13 and sent brain dead to the hospital. The news of her death triggered protests, which started with a widespread expression of outrage on social media and the gathering of a large crowd in front of the hospital,continued in the city of Saqqez (Kordestan Province), where Mahsa was buried. Popular exasperation over the morality patrols and the veil in general, aggravated by misleading statements of the authorities regarding the cause of Mahsa’s death and the impunity generally granted to state agents for the violence used against detainees led to months of nationwide protests. Initially led by young girls and women who burned their veils, and youth in general, protesters adopted the slogan “Women, Life, Freedom,” chanted during Amini’s burial. The protest rapidly took on a clear anti-regime tone, with protesters calling for an end to the Islamic Republic. 

The scope and duration of the protest was unprecedented. State efforts to withdraw the morality police from the streets and preventative arrests of journalists and political and civil society activists did not stop the protests. By the end of December 2022, protests had taken place in about 164 cities and towns, including localities that had never witnessed protests. Close to 150 universities, high schools, businesses, and groups including oil workers, merchants of the Tehran bazaar (among others), teachers, lawyers (at least 49 of whom had been arrested as of February 1st, 2023), artists, athletes, and even doctors joined these protests in various forms. Despite the violent crackdown and mass arrests, intense protests continued for weeks, at least through November 2022, with reports of sporadic activity continuing through the beginning of 2023.

The State’s crackdown was swift and accompanied by intermittent landline and cellular internet network shutdowns, as well as threats against and arrests of victims’ family members, factors which posed a serious challenge to monitoring protests and documenting casualties. The security forces used illegal, excessive, and lethal force with handguns, shotguns, and military assault rifles against protesters. They often targeted protesters’ heads and chests, shot them at close range, and in the back. Security forces have targeted faces with pellets, causing hundreds of protesters to lose their eyesight, and according to some reports women’s genitalia. The bloodiest crackdown took place on September 30th in Zahedan, Baluchestan Province, where a protest began at the end of the Friday sermon. The death toll is reported to be above 90 for that day. Security forces shot protesters outside and worshipers inside the Mosala prayer hall. Many injured protesters, fearing arrest, did not go to hospitals where security forces have reportedly arrested injured protesters before and after they were treated.

By February 1, 2023, the Human Rights Activists News Agency reported the number of recorded protests to be 1,262. The death toll, including protesters and passersby, stood at 527, of whom 71 were children. The number of arrests (including of wounded protesters) was estimated at a minimum at 22,000 , of whom 766 had already been tried and convicted. More than 100 protesters were at risk of capital punishment, and four had been executed in December 2022 and January 2023 without minimum standards of due process. Authorities also claimed 70 casualties among state forces, though there are consistent reports from families of killed protesters indicating authorities have pressured them or offered them rewards to falsely register their loved ones as such. Protesters, human rights groups, and the media have reported cases of beatings, torture (including to coerce confessions), and sexual assaults. Detainees have no access to lawyers during interrogations and their confessions are used in courts as evidence.

Public support and international solidarity with protesters have also been unprecedented (the use of the hashtag #MahsaAmini in Farsi and English broke world records) and on November 24, 2022, the UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution calling for the creation of a fact finding mission to “Thoroughly and independently investigate alleged human rights violations in the Islamic Republic of Iran related to the protests that began on 16 September 2022, especially with respect to women and children.”

Background of Extrajudicial Killings by the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Islamic Republic of Iran has a long history of politically motivated violence in Iran and around the world. Since the 1979 Revolution, Islamic Republic operatives inside and outside the country have engaged in kidnapping, disappearing, and killing a large number of individuals whose activities they deemed undesirable. The actual number of the victims of extrajudicial killings inside Iran is not clear; however, these murders began in February 1979 and have continued since then, both inside and outside Iran. The Abdorrahman Boroumand Center has so far identified over 540 killings outside Iran attributed to the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Dissidents have been assassinated by the agents of the Islamic Republic outside Iran in countries such as the Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, India, and Pakistan in Asia; Dubai, Iraq, and Turkey in the Middle East; Cyprus, France, Italy, Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and Great Britain in Europe; and the United States across the Atlantic Ocean. In most cases, there has not been much published, and local authorities have not issued arrest warrants. But documentation, evidence, and traces obtained through investigations conducted by local police and judicial authorities confirm the theory of state committed crimes. In some instances, these investigations have resulted in the expulsion or arrest of Iranian diplomats. In a few cases outside Iran, the perpetrators of these murders have been arrested and put on trial. The evidence presented revealed the defendants’ connection to Iran’s government institutions, and an arrest warrant has been issued for Iran’s Minister of Information.

The manner in which these killings were organized and implemented in Iran and abroad is indicative of a single pattern which, according to Roland Chatelin, the Swiss prosecutor, contains common parameters and detailed planning. It can be ascertained from the similarities between these murders in different countries that the Iranian government is the principal entity that ordered the implementation of these crimes. Iranian authorities have not officially accepted responsibility for these murders and have even attributed their commission to internal strife in opposition groups. Nevertheless, since the very inception of the Islamic Republic regime, the Islamic Republic officials have justified these crimes from an ideological and legal standpoint. In the spring of 1979, Sadeq Khalkhali, the first Chief Shari’a Judge of the Islamic Revolutionary Courts, officially announced the regime’s decision to implement extrajudicial executions and justified the decision: “ … These people have been sentenced to death; from the Iranian people’s perspective, if someone wants to assassinate these individuals abroad, in any country, no government has any right to bring the perpetrator to trial as a terrorist, because such a person is the implementing agent of the sentence issued by the Islamic Revolutionary Court. Therefore, they are Mahduroddam and their sentence is death regardless of where they are.” More than 10 years after these proclamations, in a speech about the security forces’ success, Ali Fallahian, the regime’s Minister of Information, stated the following regarding the elimination of members of the opposition: “ … We have had success in inflicting damage to many of these little groups outside the country and on our borders.”

At the same time, various political, judicial, and security officials of the Islamic Republic of Iran have, at different times and occasions, confirmed the existence of a long term government policy for these extrajudicial killings and in some cases their implementation. 

Read more about the background of extrajudicial killings in the Islamic Republic of Iran by clicking on the left hand highlight with the same title.

Ms. Nika Shakarami’s Extrajudicial Execution

Nika Shakarami went missing on September 20, 2022, after taking part in street protests. According to her mother, she had several brief calls with her that day, but the last call occurred at 11:40 p.m. on September 20. Describing the call, Nika's mother mentioned it was filled with background noise, including the sound of Nika gasping, suggesting she might have been running from officers. (Mrs. Nasrin Shakarami's video message to Radio Farda and interview with Iran International TV on October 6, 2022.)

The only remaining trace of Nika is her messages exchanged with her aunt and some friends on the last day, centering around her involvement in the protests and her unwavering commitment to future demonstrations. Furthermore, videos from the protests that night in Tehran, disseminated by CNN and the Twitter account "1500Tasvir," depict Nika wearing a black head-to-toe cover with a backpack. She can be observed shaking a burning scarf atop a trash can in the footage. Moments later, she takes another scarf and sets it on fire in front of fellow protesters. In another video captured at 8:37 on September 20, Tehran time, Nika is seen taking cover behind a white car in the city's traffic. She shouts to the driver, saying, "Don't move... Don't move." (CNN news agency October 7, 2022)

A German friend of Nika named Nele, residing in Leipzig, has been in contact with her since April 2021. In an interview with the German newspaper "Die Zeit," Nele reported that Nika called her in the early hours of September 30. According to Nele, the call was made from a quiet location where the sounds of cars and protesters were absent. During this conversation, Nika shared details about the harsh treatment of protesters and witnessing scenes of violence against them. Nika also mentioned her active participation, admitting to throwing stones at the police and even hitting them with an unclear object, possibly a tree branch or a piece of wood. Additionally, Nika informed her that one of her friends, who had recorded several videos of the protests using her cellphone, including footage of Nika, had been arrested. However, Nika managed to escape from the location by entering a stranger's car. During the conversation, Ms. Shakarami emphasized her intention to attend the demonstration the next day. In this interview, Nele recalled Nika saying, "Many people who had considered emigrating before are now choosing to stay in Iran and fight for their freedom." As per the report from the "Die Zeit" reporter, who examined Nele's phone and WhatsApp messages, the final message from Ms. Shakarami seen on Nele's phone was sent at 4:40 in the morning in Iran. Following this, Nele's subsequent messages went unanswered. (Persian translation of the article from "Die Zeit," featuring an interview with Luisa Hommerich, conducted on November 18, 2022, and November 9, 2023.)

According to Nika's account of the events that night, as shared with her friend Nele, one of Nika's fellow protesters had been arrested several hours earlier with her phone, which held videos of Nika participating in protests. Security forces probably traced Nika through her phone, ultimately locating her in the early morning of September 21, specifically after 4:40 a.m. Nika's body was found a few hours later, reportedly around 7:30 a.m., by residents of a building at Tehran's "Amir-Akram Crossroads." Permission to transport Nika's body to the forensic pathologist was granted on September 21 by the Behesht-e Zahra Organization. In the documentation, she was labeled as "Unknown" and was found without a backpack, identification documents, as well as various items such as cash, documents, ornaments, and others. Following the crime scene investigation regulations, bodies lacking crime scene-related tools are sent to forensic medicine. The Police Criminal Investigation Department's crime investigation group is responsible for delivering and managing other tools discovered at the crime scene. (Musa Barzin, ABC's lawyer, and legal advisor) In the burial permit issued by the municipality on September 29, the date of Nika's death was officially recorded as September 21. (Documents published in Mizan news agency, October 26, 2022)

In the days following September 20, Ms. Shakarami's family members made extensive efforts to locate Nika. Atash Shakarami, Nika's aunt, publicly announced her niece's disappearance on her Instagram page on September 26. Nika's mother, Nasrin Shakarami, stressed that her daughter had a birth certificate and a cell phone with her. She mentioned, "We suspected she was detained, and we visited prisons, the Police Criminal Investigation Department, and various locations, but received no answers." During these efforts, someone checked Nika's national number and confirmed that she was arrested by the IRGC and undergoing interrogation. (Interview with Iran International, 6 October 2022 - Euronews, 7 December 2022) Ultimately, a week later, the family successfully filed a formal report of Nika's disappearance. After nine days of uncertainty, her mother and uncle identified Nika's dead body at Tehran's Kahrizak morgue on September 29.

The burial permit issued by the Behesht-e Zahra Organization, linked to Tehran Municipality, for the Khorramabad cemetery, indicates that Nika Shakarami's cause of death was "multiple injuries caused by being struck with a hard object" (ABC documents archive). According to a reliable source, the death certificate and forensic medical certificate, which were reviewed by the family's lawyer five weeks after Ms. Shakarami's death, specify the cause of death as "multiple blows to the head and face with a hard object" (interview with an informed source by ABC, March 24, 2023). On October 3, 2022, Ms. Shakarami was buried in the presence of numerous armed security officers in the cemetery of Hayat ol Gheyb village, located 40 kilometers from Khorramabad, without the presence of her mother (Persian BBC, October 6, 2022). At the memorial ceremony, 40 days after her death on October 27th, held at her grave in the Hayat ol Gheyb cemetery in Lorestan, security forces attacked and fired shots at participants (Iran International, October 28, 2022). 

Officials’ Reaction

From the beginning of media coverage surrounding Ms. Shakarami's death, government officials and state media actively responded to the case, attempting to portray her murder as a result of falling from a building. Their reactions included broadcasting a "TV Documentary" featuring forced confessions, publishing numerous reports challenging existing documents, engaging in document forgery, exerting influence, and imposing severe restrictions on the funeral.

According to Nika's mother, the Police Criminal Investigation Department showed them photos from the day Nika's dead body was found, with the date recorded as September 20 (Euronews, December 27, 2022 - Aida Shakarami's Instagram, March 18, 2023). However, a few weeks later, Mohammad Javad Shafiei, the investigator of the fifth investigation branch of Tehran's 2727 District Prosecutor's Office, confirmed the discovery of Nika's cell phone. He emphasized that "no information about her identity was obtained during the inspections". He mentioned, "Ms. Shakrami's mobile phone was also found at the scene, in airplane mode, playing music." (Mizan news agency, October 26, 2022). Meanwhile, the authorities kept Nika's family uninformed from September 20 to October 1, and some of Nika's belongings, including her mobile phone, computer, and birth certificate, were never returned to the family. (Interview with an informed source by ABC, November 9, 2023)

Despite Nika's mother being her official guardian, authorities denied the family's request to bury her in Salehin Cemetery in Khorramabad. They argued that a burial in Khorramabad would be "risky and attract attention." Consequently, security forces relocated Nika's body 40 kilometers away and buried her without the family's knowledge or the mother's permission. In an interview with the Tasnim news agency, which is affiliated with the IRGC, Ms. Shakarami's maternal uncle explained that the Security Council meeting took place in the presence of Nika's family. During this meeting, efforts were made to present their reasons and persuade the family not to bury her in Khorramabad for security reasons. While her father's relatives welcomed this proposal, they insisted that Nika's burial was contingent upon her mother's consent, which she opposed. (Tasnim News Agency, October 6, 2022).

IRGC Intelligence agents arrested Mohsen Shakarami, Nika's uncle, shortly after his burial on October 3rd. A few hours later, they also apprehended Atash Shakarami, Nika's aunt, who played a crucial role in making the news of her murder public. Atash Shakarami underwent relentless interrogation for approximately 48 hours, during which the agents sought to extract the confessions they desired. (BBC Persian and Etemad newspaper, October 10, 2022).

The day following Ms. Shakarami's burial, the Tehran prosecutor declared the "initiation of a judicial case within the Criminal Crimes Prosecutor's Office" to investigate her "death." (Fars news agency, October 4, 2022) Government media sources have reported the arrest of eight workers from a commercial building in connection with Nika's death. (Tasnim News Agency, October 4, 2022) The building in question is reportedly located at "Amir Akram Crossroads," the very site where, according to authorities, Mrs. Shakarami's body was found at 7:30 am on September 20. Described as being in the final stages of construction, this building accommodates two clothing manufacturers where workers were actively working and providing security. (IRIB news agency, October 5, 2022).

On the evening of October 5, a brief television documentary was broadcast during the 20:30 news segment on IRIB. The documentary attempted to establish that Ms. Shakarami was thrown from a 5-story building near her aunt's house. The report utilized footage from a CCTV camera, showing a teenage girl entering a building with a mask covering her face and a brimmed hat. The claim made in the documentary suggests that this individual is Nika Shakarami. In this program, recorded during Atash Shakarami's arrest and questioning, she confirmed that the person seen in the video is indeed Nika Shakarami. Ali Salehi, Tehran's public and revolutionary prosecutor, also asserted in the same program that the forensic medical certificate specifies Nika's cause of death as resulting from "fractures in the head and neck, and other body parts," rather than injuries resulting from assault and battery or gunshots. Mohammad Shahriari, the head of the Criminal Prosecutor's Office of Tehran province, emphasized that Ms. Shakarami's body was taken to forensic medicine and initially labeled as an "unknown person." According to him, "During autopsy tests and the examination of the body, indications of multiple fractures in the pelvis, head, upper and lower organs, hands, and feet were observed, particularly in the pelvis. These findings strongly suggest that the person was thrown from a height. Our inquiries have confirmed that this indeed occurred." (IRIB news agency, October 5, 2022)

Nika's aunt was released after 48 hours of interrogation but continued to be closely monitored for an extended period. Security forces exerted control by overseeing her movements, and phone activities, and restricting her from engaging on social media. Mohsen Shakarami, Nika's uncle, received a temporary release on bail after four days of detention. However, several months later, he faced charges, including "disturbing public opinion" and "inciting people to come to the streets." Despite periodic summons to address Ms. Shakarami's case, he endured ongoing pressure. The authorities aimed to compel Shakarami's family to close the case by publicly announcing that their daughter had died by suicide. (ABC’s Interview with an informed source, March 24, 2023)

The security forces' pressure on the family and relatives persisted for an extended period leading up to the first Memorial Day commemorating Ms. Shakarami's death. On September 20, 2023, Aida Shakarami, Nika's sister, conveyed on her Instagram: "The security atmosphere has taken hold of Hayat ol Gheyb cemetery. Several compatriots who intended to participate in Nika's Memorial Day have been summoned, arrested, and warned that they lack the right to attend the event. Furthermore, anonymous individuals have threatened us, stating that if we decide to be present at the grave, my mother will be arrested. They urged us to prioritize my safety as I am her only daughter. Due to security pressure and to prevent potential harm to participants, Nika's mother has decided to cancel the Memorial Day for her daughter." (Nasrin Shakarami’s Instagram, September 20, 2023)

Familys’ Reaction

In the initial days following the murder of Ms. Shakarami, a formal complaint was filed in the criminal court. The Shakarami family engaged a lawyer to manage this case. (ABC’s Interview with an informed source, March 24, 2023) In an interview with one of Iran's media outlets, Shakarami's mother emphasized the importance of her daughter's presence at protest gatherings and called for an investigation into the uncertainties surrounding her daughter's case. She stated, "Those responsible for this tragic incident should acknowledge their responsibility. I desire a thorough and transparent investigation into the ambiguities surrounding Nika's case, free from any external pressures." (Etemad newspaper, October 10, 2022)

Shakarami's family vehemently refuted the assertions made by official media and government officials concerning Nika's death. Nika's mother, Nasrin Shakarami, emphasized, "I saw my daughter's body numerous times after receiving her deceased remains. "Her body exhibited no damage, without any fractures or bruises on her arms and legs," she stated. "She was struck forcefully, resulting in a crushed skull and a broken jaw." (Euronews, December 27, 2022). According to a reliable source, Nika's uncle, who inspected the body during the burial, underscored that he did not observe any indications of broken bones in the body, suggesting that Nika was thrown from a height location. (ABC’s Interview with an informed source, March 24, 2023) At the police station, Nika's uncle was presented with only one photo. In the image, Nika was depicted lying on the ground with her water bottle and mobile phone beside her. According to Nika's family, upon examining the photo, it was apparent that the arrangement of the body and the items next to it was highly abnormal. It appeared to be entirely staged and deliberately arranged. (Kayhan London, October 4, 2022)

Shakarami's family eventually "withdrew" from the case upon realizing that the government's intention in pursuing legal action was merely to create a narrative. They resisted the pressure from authorities urging them to conclude the case by declaring that their daughter had committed suicide in the past. As of one year after Nika Shakarami's death, the case remains open and unresolved. The family conveyed to the criminal court and the case lawyer that they had no intention of continuing with the case. Their decision was based on a fundamental lack of belief in the legitimacy of the judicial system. Additionally, they chose not to take action to officially close the case, as doing so would require adopting the government's narrative, whether it be acknowledging suicide or attributing the death to a hypothetical individual. In essence, the family decided to "abandon" the case initiated by the government. (ABC’s Interview with an informed source, March 24, 2023)

Impacts on Family

Mrs. Nasrin Shakarami expressed that the "unjustified accusations" linked to her child's murder are "more painful than the distress caused by her absence." (Etemad newspaper, October 10, 2022)

The murder of Nika profoundly affected Atash Shakarami, Nika's aunt, on a spiritual level. According to a reliable source, she was unable to resume work after her niece's tragic murder. (ABC’s Interview with an informed source, March 24, 2023)

Ambiguities of the Case

What is evident is the absence of definite and documented information regarding the details of Nika Shakarami's death. However, by examining the persisting ambiguities in this case, undeniable parallels emerge with the prevalent pattern of the Islamic Republic concealing and distorting information related to homicides. Some of the questionable ambiguities in this case include:

1-     Despite Mohammad Javad Shafiei, the investigator of the 5th investigation branch of the 27th District Prosecutor's Office of Tehran, clearly stating that Nika Shakarami's mobile phone was found next to her body and in music mode at the time of discovery, making the process of identifying the body and contacting her family seemingly straightforward, Nika was still taken to the Kahrizak morgue under the designation of “unknown”. Shockingly, it took over a week after her death for the family to be notified. Compounding the mystery, Nele, Nika's German friend, reports that Nika's social media accounts, including WhatsApp and Instagram, were deleted from her phone on the same night – potentially erasing crucial evidence of her last calls and messages. (Iran-emrooz, November 14, 2023) Despite this, the Police Criminal Investigation Department refuses to return personal belongings, such as Nika's mobile phone and computer, to the family.

2-     Although the forensic medical certificate is the sole official and scientific document that can precisely describe the manner and time of death, it has never been provided to Shakrami's family. The family's lawyer mentioned in an interview on November 16, nearly two months after Nika's death, "The forensic medical certificate has not been legally served to me yet." (VokalaPress News Website, November 16, 2022)

3-     The arrest of Nika Shakarami's uncle and aunt by the Ministry of Intelligence, along with obtaining a TV interview from them while they were under arrest, suggests that the security apparatus aimed to manipulate public opinion. These interviews were conducted under pressure and with a specific agenda. Mrs. Atash Shakarami, Nika's aunt, later addressed the issue on her Instagram page, a few months after the interviews. She clarified that the content presented was misleading, stating, "Anyone with even a basic understanding of media can see how a simple edit can distort a two-hour conversation into a 30-second video that misrepresents the reality of what was said. I never asserted anywhere that Nika committed suicide."

4-     In the interviews with judicial and law enforcement officials, there has been a consistent emphasis on the absence of bullet marks indicating that Nika Shakarami was killed during the protests. However, numerous cases exist where individuals have been injured or killed, not only by law enforcement officers using firearms but also because of physical violence during detention.

5-     Over a year since the death of Mahsa (Jina) Amini, the government's investigation into the murder has yielded no results. Meanwhile, media outlets affiliated with the government have attempted to portray Nika’s death as a suicide. This portrayal comes despite Nika's active presence at the protests an hour before her death and her communication with a friend (Nele), expressing an intention to continue participating in the protests in the following days. Additionally, her choice, along with other young people, to refrain from emigration after the recent protests, signaling hope for the future, remains unconvincing in light of the circumstances.

6-     According to a resident from the area where Nika's body was found, security forces, while collecting CCTV footage from residents of the alley, arrested several neighbors. Subsequently, these neighbors were released after paying substantial bail and agreeing to remain silent about the incident. In another report received by the Boroumand Center, it was mentioned that in the building near where the body was found, there is an apartment that security forces have been visiting for years. While this information cannot be independently verified, the Boroumand Center has received similar reports over the years from various sources. These reports suggest the existence of regular houses in Tehran being used by intelligence officers for interrogation purposes.

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