Abdorrahman Boroumand Center

for Human Rights in Iran

https://www.iranrights.org
Omid, a memorial in defense of human rights in Iran
One Person’s Story

Kamran Mansur

About

Age: 42
Nationality: Iran
Religion: Non-Believer
Civil Status: Unknown

Case

Date of Killing: July 1, 1992
Location of Killing: Kareza Wishk Street, Suleymanieh, Iraq
Mode of Killing: Extrajudicial Shooting
Age at time of offense: 42

About this Case

Mr. Mansur believed in organized party work and had written a number of articles expounding guerilla warfare. He was a member of Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran (“Iran Communists Union”) also known as Sarbedaran, and played an integral part in its political and ideological overhaul and reconstruction after the severe repression of its members in Iran in 1981.

Information regarding the extrajudicial killing of Mr. Kamran Mansur (Kak Manuchehr Hosseini) was obtained from interviews conducted by the Abdorrahman Boroumand Center with a fellow member of Mr. Mansur’s party in Iraqi Kurdistan (September 21, 2021) and with a person who knew Mr. Mansur (September 18, 2021). News of this murder was also published in Haghighat Publication, news arm of Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran (“Iran Communists Union”) – Sarbedaran, special edition dedicated to the killing of Mr. Mansur (July-August, 1992), and in an Iran Documents Center report (August-September, 2008). Additional information about this killing was obtained from the Communist Party of Iran website (March 17, 2019); Fa’ezun website (January 24, 2018); Brigham Young University archives (March 12, 2013); IRNA News Agency (August 8, 2019); and Boroumand Center research.

Mr. Mansur was born in 1950-51, in a well-to-do family in Tehran. He graduated with a degree in Agriculture from Shiraz University and obtained a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from a university in England. He became concerned and sensitized about social inequalities and political issues during his time as a student at Shiraz University and became student activist. (Haghighat publication, July-August 1992; the Communist Party of Iran website). When studying in England, he was a follower of the Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran (“Iran Communists Union”) (also called Sarbedaran), and joined the Ehia Students Confederation, a faction that had split from the Iranian Students Confederation, National Union, that was affiliated with the Communist Revolutionary Organization. (Boroumand Center interview with a fellow member of Mr. Mansur’s party, September 21, 2021). He went back to Iran after the 1979 Revolution, and returned to England a short while later. In the winter of 1981, he played an integral part in the establishment of the Students Revolutionary Masses Organization (SETAD), a division of the Iran Communists Union, the goal of which was to organize youth activities, and became its secretary. (Haghighat publication, July-August 1992; the Communist Party of Iran website).

In February 1982, military clashes occurred between Sarbedaran members and government forces in the city of Amol [in Mazandaran Province] which led to the arrest, execution, and repression of the group inside Iran, and caused internal conflict in the Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran (Communists Union). Mr. Mansur, at that time, he played an effective role in the Organization’s political and ideological overhaul and reconstruction. Mr. Mansur believed in organized party work and played an important role in establishing the students' SETAD in various countries. He would write articles expounding the perspectives of the Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran, the importance of carrying on the fight, necessity of reconstruction of the organization, and the strategies and tactics of armed struggle. One of the subjects about which he wrote regularly was “surrounding and laying siege to cities by [first using] villages”. He had written: “ … We will start with villages because Erteja (“archaic and outdated”; here referring to the Islamic republic regime) is concentrated in towns and cities, and the probability of us being repressed in villages is lower, and we can rely on the village masses for a revolutionary war. We must quickly create partisan groups, free various regions, and expand our forces. Relying on armed fighting, we can and we must recruit activists and pioneers in towns near a particular region, that is, from among urban masses, especially the proletariat and those who live on the fringes, who are in contact with the farmers themselves.” (Haghighat publication, July-August 1992).

Between 1982 and 1984, Mr. Mansur, along with other members of the SETAD, actively participated in protest demonstrations and assemblies held against the Islamic Republic in England, including the demonstrations in support of political prisoners in the summer of 1984. He was in charge of the attack and occupation of the Islamic Republic of Iran Airline in London on November 8, 1984, protesting “the repression of Kurds and forced migration”. (Haghighat publication, July-August 1992; Faezoon website). After the Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran’s call for “the resumption of armed struggle in the North” in 1985, Mr. Mansur, as an official member of the party, went to Iraqi Kurdistan and to various villages and towns in Soleimanieh Province, finally settling in the town of Ranieh. He was in charge of the Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran’s “Kurdistan Committee” and was director of "Seday-e Sarbedaran" Radio. According to a person who knew Mr. Mansur and worked for a time at Sarbedaran Radio as a member of the Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran, the Radio had two hours of programming a day, producing and broadcasting programs against the Islamic Republic, methods of fighting, recruiting the populace, and promoting communist ideas. (Boroumand Center interview with a person who knew Mr. Mansur, September 18, 2021; Haghighat publication, July-August 1992).

According to the Haghighat Publication report, news arm of Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran (“Iran Communists’ Union”), the Committee was composed of a small group of people and did not have a military force. (Haghighat publication, July-August 1992).

According to Mr. Mansur’s fellow Party member, who was active in Iraqi Kurdistan at the time, Mr. Mansur and a number of other members of the Communists’ Union were arrested by members of the Kurdistan Social Democratic Party* (KSP) in February 1992, after the latter’s attack on the Ettehadieh headquarters and Radio, were detained in KSP buildings, and were released after protest demonstrations in the region. (Boroumand Center interview with a fellow member of Mr. Mansur’s party in Iraqi Kurdistan, September 21, 2021). The Islamic Republic of Iran has close relations with the Kurdistan Social Democratic Party, and Islamic Republic opposition parties accuse the Party of partaking in the murder and assassination of its members. (Boroumand Center research).

In the spring and summer of 1992, at the same time the first parliamentary elections were held in the Iraqi Kurdistan Autonomous Region, the Communist’ Union intended to modify its policies in the region and halt the operations of its Radio. (Boroumand Center interview with a person who knew Mr. Mansur, September 18, 2021).

Those who had engaged in political activities with Mr. Mansur, described him as a man of action, full of energy, tireless, hopeful, an avid reader, logical, trustworthy, and possessing organizational skill and discipline. (Haghighat publication, July-August 1992).

Ettehadieh Communist-ha

The Ettehadieh Komonist-ha (the Union of Communists of Iran) was created by exiled opponents of the Pahlavi regime who mostly belonged to the Student Confederation. They followed the teachings of Mao Tse-Tung and did not believe in guerilla warfare. The group became marked by ideological divides during the periods preceding and following the 1979 revolution which caused it to split into several factions. One of the most important rifts was triggered by the decision by a number of members to take up arms and take over a city in Iran. The uprising plan, devised in the midst of an active and violent anti-communist campaign by the revolutionary Islamic government, split the Union in two factions: one supporting the armed movement and the other opposing it.

In the winter of 1982, armed members of the Union hid in a forest in the North of Iran (Jangal in Farsi) outside the city of Amol. This group, also known as the Sarbedaran-e Jangal, was involved in several clashes with the Revolutionary guards and ultimately, on January 26, attacked the city of Amol hoping to generate a general uprising. The attempt to seize Amol failed. It is reported that a number of the group’s members, revolutionary guards, and civilians were killed during the Amol clash. Subsequently, members of the Union, including those who opposed the Amol uprising, were arrested and tried for belonging to the organization and for having participated in the Amol clash

Confederation of Iranian Students

The Confederation of Iranian Students, National Union, (Confederation) was the outcome of a 1962 merger of Iranian students’ associations formed a couple of years earlier in Europe and the United States with the aim of promoting cooperation, strengthening students groups, and informing them of their rights and obligations. The Confederation was composed mainly of members or sympathizers of the National Front and the Tudeh. During the first years of its activities, the organization’s leadership was dominated by the National Front supporters. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Confederation became a significant opposition force outside Iran, bringing media visibility to political prisoners and repression in Iran. In 1971, the Iranian government declared the Confederation illegal. The Confederation radicalized progressively and by the mid-1970s, it was dominated by pro-guerrilla student organizations. Its new Charter (1975) explicitly called for the overthrow of the Shah’s regime. After the Islamic Revolution most of its members returned to Iran. 

Mr. Kamran Mansur’s Death

At around 10:30 to 11 o’clock in the morning of July 1, 1992, Mr. Mansur was shot in the back of the head and killed in a mechanic’s shop in Karizeh Voshkeh (Khoskeh) to the northwest of the city of Soleimanieh in Iraq, near the Malek Mahmud beltway. He had taken the Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran’s car to the shop, and was shot by two individuals when he wanted to show the mechanic the vehicle’s exhaust pipe. (Boroumand Center interview with a fellow member of Mr. Mansur’s party, September 21, 2021; Haghighat publication, July-August 1992).

According to Mr. Mansur’s fellow Party member, the gunmen and the mechanic stole the car but abandoned it three kilometers (2 miles) further as it had run out of gasoline. The car was discovered by the Soleimanih Security Administration 24 hours later. (Boroumand Center interview with a fellow member of Mr. Mansur’s party, September 21, 2021).

At 4 o’clock in the afternoon of July 2, 1992, a funeral procession composed of his friends and brothers in arm took Mr. Mansur’s body from Soleimanieh Central Hospital to the Karizeh Voshkeh Cemetery where he was laid to rest. Some members of leftist parties, including a number of Kurdish parties, were present at his funeral. (Haghighat publication, July-August 1992).

Members of various leftist groups and several Kurdish parties opposed to the Islamic Republic, participated in Mr. Mansur’s funeral and spoke of the role he had played in the struggle.

Officials’ Reaction

There is no information regarding the Iranian officials’ reaction to this killing.

Ettehadieh Communist-ha (“Iran Communists Union”), Sarbedaran’s Reaction

According to Mr. Mansur’s fellow Party member, the investigations conducted by the Ettehadieh Communist-haye Iran determined that one of the individuals who had shot Mr. Mansur was a member of the Kurdistan Social Democratic Party (KSP) and the other was an Iranian national, both of whom escaped to Iran after the assassination. According to this person, the fact that the Kurdistan Autonomous Region had just been established did not allow for further judicial investigation and adjudication of this case. (Boroumand Center interview with a fellow member of Mr. Mansur’s party, September 21, 2021).

Familys’ Reaction

There is no information regarding Mr. Mansur’s family’s reaction.

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* The Kurdistan Social Democratic Party (KSP): This Party, adhering to socialist ideology, was first established in the summer of 1977, bearing the name Kurdistan Socialist Movement; it changed the name and continued its activities as the Kurdistan Social Democratic Party in 1978, when a group composed of members of Hezb-e Ettehadieh Mihani Kurdistan (“the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Party”) joined the Party. Members of the Party engaged in armed conflict with the Saddam Hussein regime, and starting in 1991, with the establishment of the Kurdistan Autonomous region, they engaged in political and election activities. At the time of the writing of this report in September 2021, they are members of the Iraqi parliament and government.

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