Abdorrahman Boroumand Center

for Human Rights in Iran

https://www.iranrights.org
Omid, a memorial in defense of human rights in Iran
One Person’s Story

Manijeh Hoda'i

About

Age: 26
Nationality: Iran
Religion: Non-Believer
Civil Status: Married

Case

Date of Killing: December, 1982
Location: Evin Prison, Tehran, Tehran Province, Iran
Mode of Killing: Shooting
Charges: Unknown charge

About this Case

She held interests in politics, medicine, and logic and liked to elicit the views of people who disagreed with hers.  On joining the student division of Peykar, she was given responsible positions.  

The information about Ms. Manijeh Hoda’i has been drawn from an interview with her brother. She is also one of the 12028 individuals listed in an addendum to the Mojahed magazine (No 261), published by Mojahedin Khalq Organization in 1985. The list includes individuals, affiliated with various opposition groups, who were executed or killed during clashes with the Islamic Republic security forces from June 1981 to the publication date of the magazine. Additionally, her name is mentioned in the list of the “Martyrs of the Peykar Organization for the Liberation of the Working Class” published on the website of Andeesheh va Peykar. This list contains the names of those members of the organization who died after the revolution of 1979. More than 400 of the individuals on this list have been executed.

Ms. Hoda’i grew up in a political family. Until the coup of August 19, 1953, his parents were affiliated with the Tudeh Party. However, her mother continued her political activism secretly even after the coup. Discussing political news and articles broadcast on the radio was routine in their family.

Manijrh went to elementary school in her birth place, Abadan. From childhood, she enjoyed studying and was among the best students at school. She won an award sponsored by a radio station and received her award from Farah Pahlavi.

She spent the last years of her high school in Tehran. As a high school student, she became more interested in politics and was among the students who opposed the Pahlavi regime. Manijeh was good at technical subjects but she chose to go to medical school for she thought that she can serve better as a doctor. In 1975 she enrolled in Tehran University and continued to be an opposition student activist. SAVAK, the National Intelligence and Security Organization of the previous regime, warned her on several occasions for her activities.

Among the activities of opposition students was hiking. In March 1976, in a hiking trip, Manijeh and her group faced a disaster and several people died due to an avalanche. She was injured and hospitalized for some time. For some time she had to use when walking.

Manijeh was initially affiliated with the Fadaiyan Khalq Organization. However, at the time of the revolution, she joined the Peykar Organization and was a member of the central committee of the students division of Peykar, and a consellor of the central committee of the Organization.

Ms. Hoda’i was interested in theories, logic, and reasoning. She wanted to hear those who disagreed with her. In discussions she held radical opinions nevertheless in practice she treated people with compassion. One of her characteristics was that she was empathetic and she could understand the other people’s problems and emotions.

The Peykar Organization for the Liberation of the Working Class was founded by a number of dissident members of the Mojahedin Khalq Organization who had converted to Marxism-Leninism. Peykar was also joined by a number of political organizations, known as Khat-e Se (Third line). The founding tenets of Peykar included the rejection of guerrilla struggle and a strong stand against the pro-Soviet policies of the Iranian Tudeh Party. Peykar viewed the Soviet Union as a “Social imperialist” state, believed that China had deviated from the Marxist-Leninist principles, and radically opposed all factions of the Islamic regime of Iran. The brutal repression of dissidents by the Iranian government and splits within Peykar in 1981 and 1982 effectively dismantled the Organization and scattered its supporters. By the mid-1980s, Peykar was no longer in existence.

Arrest and detention

Ms. Manijeh Hoda’i was arrested on February 11, 1982, along with her husband, Mas’ud Jigare’i, one of the leaders of the Peykar Organization. On the same day, many other members of Peykar were also arrested. The arrests were announced on radio and television and official newspapers. Ms. Hoda’i was interrogated in Ward 3000, which was renamed Tohid Prison. (Prior to the revolution, the same prison was called the Joint Anti-Sabotage Committee, which has become the Ebrat Museum since the early 1990’s.) After a few weeks, Ms. Hoda’i was transferred to Evin prison.

According to the available information, Ms. Hoda’i was severely tortured. Two months after her arrest, when she was seen at the Hosseinieh of Evin prison, her feet were bandaged and she limped when walking, implying that she was flogged on the feet. At the Hosseineih, she publicly defended her political beliefs. This incident is reported in detail in the book Simple Truth, by Monireh Baradaran.

In late April 1982, Ms. Hoda’i had a visit with her mother, during which she told her that she was condemned to execution. She tried to console her mother and asked her to stay strong. After this visit, her family did not heard from her. Her mother used to go to the Luna Park amusement park, in vicinity of Evin prison, where family members of prisoners gathered to find out the whereabouts of their loved ones, or to send them money and clothes. Nevertheless, Manijeh’s mother was unable to find out anything about her. She condemned the way she was treated as a result of which she was arrested and held for several hours.

Before her arrest, Manijeh had told her mother that she was pregnant. Her family members do not know what happened to her fetus.

Trial

There is no information regarding this trial.

Charges

The charges brought against Ms. Hoda’i are not known.

Evidence of guilt

No information is available concerning the evidence presented against Ms. Hoda’i.

Defense

A few weeks after her arrest, Ms. Hoda’i denounced her own political beliefs in a video interview. However, she later changed her mind and at Hosseinieh of Evin prison, she publicly defended Marxism and her opposition to the regime. She said she would defend her beliefs as long as she was alive.

Judgment

No specific information is available about the verdict leading to this execution. Ms. Manijeh Hoda’i was executed in late 1982.

In November/December 1982, a prison official contacted Manijeh’s mother and family members of other prisoners and informed them that Asadollah Lajevardi, Tehran Prosecutor and the director of Evin prison, was going to hold a meeting with family members of prisoners and answer their questions. Manijeh’s mother planned on going to this meeting.

The morning of the meeting, an Evin official called the Hoda’i family’s house, from which they had already moved. The official told their tenant that Manijeh Hoda’i and her husband Mas’ud Jigare’i had been executed, asking him to inform the family that they need not come to the meeting with Lajevardi. Manijeh’s mother decided to go to the meeting regardless, during which she protested and asked why her daughter and son-in-law had been executed. She said they had not committed a crime punishable by death such as murder. Lajevardi replied: “They had not directly caused anybody’s death, but they administered a terrorism school.” She then asked about Manijeh’s pregnancy and asked what happened to her child. Lajevardi was infuriated and accused her of false allegations.

Manijeh’s mother was arrested at that meeting and taken to a cell in Ward 209 of Evin prison, where she was held for several months. Prison officials allowed her to read Manijeh’s will, but did not let her keep it.

The burial location of Manijeh Hoda’i and her husband Mas’ud Jigare’i is not known.

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