Abdorrahman Boroumand Center

for Human Rights in Iran

Omid, a memorial in defense of human rights in Iran
One Person’s Story

Yarali Gartabar Firuzja'i


Age: 33
Nationality: Iran
Religion: Presumed Muslim
Civil Status: Single


Date of Killing: July 10, 1995
Location of Killing: Baghdad, Iraq
Mode of Killing: Extrajudicial shooting

About this Case

Information regarding the extrajudicial killing of Mr. Yarali Gartabar Firuzja’i was published in Simaye Azadi (July 11, 2021), SHohadaye Mojahedin (April 7, 2008), and Pishtazan-e Rah-e Azadiye Iran (“Pioneers of Iran’s Freedom Path”) Gilan Province Martyrs (July 11, 2017).

According to available information, Mr. Gartabar Firuzjayi was 33 years old, born in the city of Babol, and had a high school education. He was a supporter of Mojahedin Khalq Iran Organization* and was imprisoned in 1982 because of his activities. When he was released in 1985, he immediately restarted his activities with the MKO at their border base.

Mr. Yarali Gartabar Firuzja’i’s Death

According to available information, Mr. Gartabar Firuzja’i and two of his brothers in arm, Mr. Seyed Hossein Seyedsedidi and Ebrahim Salimi, were riding in a car on July 10, 1995, when individuals riding in a cab opened fire on their car, killing Mr. Gartabar Firuzjayi in Baghdad. The attackers also fired on their car with an RPG 18.

Mojahedin Khalq Organization’s Reaction

A communique issued by the Mojahedin Khalq Organization office in Baghdad stated: “This terrorist network was run directly by Nader, Yarahmadi, the Iranian regime’s Embassy’s Second Secretary in Baghdad, who was a high-ranking officer in the regime’s Ministry of Information.”

Officials’ Reaction

There is no information regarding the Islamic Republic officials’ reaction to Mr. Gartabar Firuzja’i’s death.

Family’s Reaction

There is no information regarding Mr. Gartabar Firuzja’i’s family’s reaction to his death.


* The Mojahedin Khalq Organization (MKO) was founded in 1965. This organization adapted the principals of Islam as its ideological guideline. However, their interpretation of Islam was revolutionary and they believed in armed struggle against the Shah's regime. They valued Marxism as a progressive method for economic and social analysis but considered Islam as their source of inspiration, culture, and ideology. In the 1970s, the MKO was weakened when many of its members were imprisoned and executed. In 1975, following a deep ideological crisis, the organization refuted Islam as its ideology and, after many of its members were killed and the purge of other Muslim members, the organization proclaimed Marxism as its ideology. This move created a tense and critical atmosphere among the Muslim activists and sympathizers of the MKO, and finally led to pronouncement of the Marxist-Leninist Section of the Mojahedin Khalq Organization in 1977. In January of 1979 the imprisoned Muslim leaders of the MKO were released along with other political prisoners. They began to re-organize the MKO and recruit new members based on Islamic ideology. After the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of the Islamic Republic, the MKO accepted the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini and supported the Revolution. Active participation in the political scene and infiltration of governmental institutions were foremost on the organization’s agenda. During the first two years after the Revolution, the MKO succeeded in recruiting numerous sympathizers, especially in high schools and universities; but their efforts to gain political power, either by becoming appointed officials or elected by the people, were strongly opposed by the Islamic Republic authorities.
The exclusion of MKO members from government offices and the closure of their centers and publishing houses, in conjunction with to the Islamic Republic authorities’ different interpretation of Islam, widened the gap between the two. Authorities of the new regime referred to the Mojahedin as “Hypocrites” and the Hezbollahi supporters of the regime attacked the Mojahedin sympathizers regularly during demonstrations and while distributing publications, leading to the death of several MKO supporters. On June 20, 1981, the MKO called for a demonstration protesting their treatment by governmental officials and the effort to impeach their ally, President Banisadr. Despite the fact that the regime called this demonstration illegal, thousands came to the streets, some of whom confronted the Revolutionary Guardsmen and Hezbollahis. The number of casualties from the demonstration is unknown but a large number of demonstrators were arrested and executed in the following days and weeks. Following that day, the Islamic Republic regime started a repressive campaign – unprecedented in modern Iranian history – and thousands of MKO members and sympathizers were arrested or executed. On June 21, 1981, the MKO announced an armed struggle against the Islamic Republic and assassinated a number of high ranking officials and supporters of the Islamic regime over the next weeks and months.
In the summer of 1981, the leader of the MKO and the impeached President (Abolhassan Banisadr) fled Iran to reside in France, where he founded the National Council of Resistance. After the MKO leaders and many of its members were expelled from France, they went to Iraq and founded the National Liberation Army of Iran in 1987, which entered Iranian territory a few times during the Iran-Iraq war. They were defeated in July 1988 during their last operation, the Forugh Javidan Operation. A few days after this operation, thousands of imprisoned Mojahedin supporters were killed during the mass executions of political prisoners in 1988. Ever since the summer of 1981, the MKO has continued its activities outside of Iran. No information is available regarding members and activities of the MKO inside the country. 

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