Abdorrahman Boroumand Center

for Human Rights in Iran

Omid, a memorial in defense of human rights in Iran
One Person’s Story

Ali Akbar Montazeri


Age: 29
Nationality: Iran
Religion: Islam
Civil Status: Married


Date of Killing: July 7, 1981
Location of Killing: Qae'mshahr, Mazandaran Province, Iran
Mode of Killing: Shooting
Charges: Assault and battery; Actively opposing the Islamic Republic; Counter revolutionary opinion and/or speech; Membership of anti-regime guerilla group; Participating in clashes with revolutionary guards and or Bassij brothers

About this Case

The news of the execution of Mr. Ali Akbar Montazeri (Montazeri Juybari) was announced in reports published in Jomhouri Eslami and Kayhan on July 8, 1981.

Mr. Montazeri, 29, university student, and a supporter of the Mojahedin Khalq Organization, is also one of the 12,028 individuals listed in an addendum to the Mojahed magazine (No 261), published by Mojahedin Khalq Organization in 1985. The list includes individuals, affiliated with various opposition groups, who were executed or killed during clashes with the Islamic Republic security forces from June 1981 to the publication date of the magazine.

Arrest and detention

The circumstances of Mr. Montazeri’s arrest and detention are not known.


Based on the available information, the Qa’em Shahr Islamic Revolutionary Tribunal issued Mr. Montazeri’s sentence. No information is available on Mr. Montazeri’s trial.


According to the Jomhouri Eslami report Mr. Montazeri’s charges were as follows: “One of the major elements and theoretical leaders of Mojahedin Khalq supporters, involvement in clashes in Juybar, near Qa’em Shahr, which resulted in injury to tens of civilians, acting against the Islamic Revolution, and misguiding the youth through preaching and disseminating the eclectic thoughts of the Mojahedin Khalq Organization.”

Evidence of guilt

The report of this execution does not contain information regarding the evidence provided against Mr. Montazeri.


No information is available on Mr. Montazeri’s defense.


The Qa’em Shahr Islamic Revolutionary Tribunal found Mr. Montazeri guilty of waging war on God and God’s Prophet, rebellion, and corruption on earth, and sentenced him to death. The Supreme Judicial Council upheld this sentence. Mr. Montazeri was executed by a firing squad on July 7, 1981 near the Shirgah-Qa’em Shahr road. Mr. Montazeri was 29 years old at the time of his execution.


*The exclusion of MKO members from government offices and the closure of their centers and publishing houses, in conjunction with to the Islamic Republic authorities’ different interpretation of Islam, widened the gap between the two. Authorities of the new regime referred to the Mojahedin as “Hypocrites” and the Hezbollahi supporters of the regime attacked the Mojahedin sympathizers regularly during demonstrations and while distributing publications, leading to the death of several MKO supporters. On June 20, 1981, the MKO called for a demonstration protesting their treatment by governmental officials and the government officials’ efforts to impeach their ally, President Abolhassan Banisadr. Despite the fact that the regime called this demonstration illegal, thousands came to the streets, some of whom confronted the Revolutionary Guardsmen and Hezbollahis. The number of casualties that resulted from this demonstration is unknown but a large number of demonstrators were arrested and executed in the following days and weeks. The day after the demonstration, the Islamic Republic regime started a repressive campaign – unprecedented in modern Iranian history. Thousands of MKO members and sympathizers were arrested or executed. On June 21, 1981, the MKO announced an armed struggle against the Islamic Republic and assassinated a number of high-ranking officials and supporters of the Islamic regime.

In the summer of 1981, the leader of the MKO and the impeached President (Banisadr) fled Iran to reside in France, where they founded the National Council of Resistance. After the MKO leaders and many of its members were expelled from France, they went to Iraq and founded the National Liberation Army of Iran in 1987, which entered Iranian territory a few times during the Iran-Iraq war. They were defeated in July 1988 during their last operation, the Forugh Javidan Operation. A few days after this operation, thousands of imprisoned Mojahedin supporters were killed during the mass executions of political prisoners in 1988. Ever since the summer of 1981, the MKO has continued its activities outside of Iran. No information is available regarding members and activities of the MKO inside the country.

In spite of the “armed struggle” announcement by the MKO on June 20, 1981, many sympathizers of the organization had no military training, were not armed, and did not participate in armed conflict.

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