Omid, a memorial in defense of human rights in Iran
One Person’s Story

Zanyar Ashian


Age: 22
Nationality: Iran
Religion: Unknown
Civil Status: Unknown


Date of Execution: August 6, 2005
Location: Sanandaj, Kordestan Province, Iran
Mode of Killing: Shooting (extrajudicial)
Charges: Unknown charge

Human rights violations in this case

Extrajudicial killings

Since the inception of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, national and international human rights organizations have blamed the Islamic Republic authorities for the extrajudicial killing of their opponents, both within and outside of Iran's borders. Although over two hundred cases have been reported, the exact number of victims remains unknown.

Extrajudicial executions carried out in Iran are rarely investigated; the few cases that have been investigated have indicated that the Iranian state security apparatus has been involved. Agents of the Islamic Republic have also targeted dissidents outside the country, assassinating opposition members in Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and in the United States,.

In many assassination cases outside Iran, local authorities have made no arrests. However, investigations, when they have taken place and been made public, have led to the single hypothesis of State ordered crimes. The organization and execution of these crimes constitute a pattern that Swiss prosecutor Roland Chatelain describes as “common parameters” following a “meticulous preparation.” Similarities between different cases in different countries have created a coherent set of presumptions designating the Islamic Republic as the instigator of these assassinations.


In cases involving prominent Iranians assassinated in France, Germany, and Switzerland, local prosecutors have provided evidence linking Iranian authorities to the crimes in question.


In France, for example, the Iranian Deputy Minister of Telecommunications has been sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the 1991 murder of two dissidents. In Germany, agents of Iran's secret services and Lebanese Hezbollah have been convicted for the 1992 murder of four dissidents in Berlin. Currently, the Islamic Republic's Minister of Information and Security at the time of this murder is under an International arrest Warrant launched by German judicial authorities for his involvement.


The German court in Berlin found that Iran's political leadership ordered the murder through a "Committee for Special Operations," whose members reportedly include the Leader of the Islamic Republic, the President, the Minister of Information and Security, and other security officials.

The Islamic Republic’s officials have claimed responsibility for some of these assassinations while denying involvement in others. In the 1980s, Iranian authorities justified extrajudicial executions of dissidents and members of the former regime and actively worked for the release of Iranians and non-Iranian agents who were detained or convicted in the West for their involvement in those killings. During the 1990s, they systematically denied any involvement in extrajudicial killings and often credited the killings to infighting amongst the opposition.


Still, the rationale supporting these killings was articulated as early as in the spring of 1979 when the First Revolutionary religious judge publicly announced the regime's intention to carry out extrajudicial executions. He said:


“no state has the right to try as a terrorist the person who kills [exiles] in foreign lands, for this person is implementing the verdict issued by the Islamic Revolutionary tribunal.”


More than a decade later, in August, 1992, the Minister of Intelligence and Security publicly boasted about the success of Iran's security forces, alluding to the elimination of dissidents:


"We have been able to deal blows to many of the mini-groups outside the country and on the borders...."

Human rights violations

Based on the available information, the following human rights have been violated in this case:

  • The right to freedom of peaceful assembly.

    UDHR, Article 20; ICCPR, Article 21.

  • The inherent right to life, of which no one shall be arbitrarily deprived.

    Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), Article 3; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), Article 6.1; Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, Article 1.1, Article 1.2.

About this Case

A number of websites and weblogs reported on Mr. Ashian’s death. These online sources include the website of the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, the website of the Worker-communist Party of Iran, and the Didgahha website.

In addition, an interview with a person close to Mr. Ashian’s family provided some information regarding his personal life.

Mr. Ashian was born in a middle-class family in Sanandaj. He lost his father when he was very young. After finishing the 10th grade he started working as a technician. He supported the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (PDKI), and two of his brothers were PDKI peshmerga. As a result, Mr. Ashian and his family were always subject to scrutiny and harassment by intelligence officers based in Sanandaj.

On August 6, 2005 Mr. Ashian and a friend were distributing leaflets inviting Sanandaj residents to join a general strike in Kurdish regions on the next day. The strike was planned to protest the death of Kamal Asfarm (also known as Schwaneh Qaderi). Based on the information provided in a weblog , security forces fired at Mr. Ashian and his friend when they attempted to flee after being stopped. Mr. Ashian was shot, and he died hours later at Tohid hospital in Sanandaj.

Following Mr. Qaderi’s killing in early July 2005 by security forces in Mahabad, some pictures of his tortured body were distributed on the internet. These pictures triggered an uprising in Mahabad. The protests soon spread to other Kurdish cities of Iran such as Sardasht, Baneh, Piranshahr, Sanandaj and Saqqez. According to the existing information, the protests began at 9 a.m. on August 2, 2005 following the distribution of a night letter in Mahabad. But the peak of the clashes occurred between 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. Afterwards, the city regained stability after intervention from security and police forces. Many people were killed and a large number were wounded. In addition, many civil activists were arrested. The protests went on for weeks despite the harsh repression by the government’s security forces, during at which protesters destroyed various State-owned properties (Amnesty International, February 16, 2006).

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