Abdorrahman Boroumand Center

for Human Rights in Iran

https://www.iranrights.org
Omid, a memorial in defense of human rights in Iran
One Person’s Story

Mehdi Daniali

About

Age: 19
Nationality: Iran
Religion: Islam
Civil Status: Single

Case

Date of Killing: July 12, 1981
Location: Bandar Anzali, Gilan Province, Iran
Mode of Killing: Shooting
Charges: Sedition and/ or threat to public security; Participating in an anti-regime demonstration; Membership of anti-regime guerilla group; Assault and battery

About this Case

The news of the execution of Mr. Mehdi Daniali was announced by a Bandar Anzali Islamic Revolutionary Prosecutor’s Office published in Kayhan on July 14, 1981 and in Jomhouri Eslami on July 15, 1981.

Mr. Daniali, 19, student, and a supporter of the Mojahedin Khalq Organization, is also one of the 12,028 individuals listed in an addendum to the Mojahed magazine (No 261), published by Mojahedin Khalq Organization in 1985. The list includes individuals, affiliated with various opposition groups, who were executed or killed during clashes with the Islamic Republic security forces from June 1981 to the publication date of the magazine.

The Mojahedin Khalq Organization (MKO) was founded in 1965. This organization adapted the principles of Islam as its ideological guideline. However, its members’ interpretation of Islam was revolutionary and they believed in armed struggle against the Shah’s regime. They valued Marxism as a progressive method for economic and social analysis but considered Islam as their source of inspiration, culture, and ideology. In the 1970s, the MKO was weakened when many of its members were imprisoned and executed. In 1975, following a deep ideological crisis, the organization refuted Islam as its ideology and, after a few of its members were killed and other Muslim members purged, the organization proclaimed Marxism as its ideology. This move led to split of the Marxist-Leninist Section of the MKO in 1977. In January of 1979, the imprisoned Muslim leaders of the MKO were released along with other political prisoners. They began to re-organize the MKO and recruit new members based on Islamic ideology. After the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of the Islamic Republic, the MKO accepted the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini and supported the Revolution. Active participation in the political scene and infiltration of governmental institutions were foremost on the organization’s agenda. During the first two years after the Revolution, the MKO succeeded in recruiting numerous sympathizers, especially in high schools and universities; but its efforts to gain political power, either by appointment or election, were strongly opposed by the Islamic Republic leaders.*

Arrest and detention

The circumstances of Mr. Daniali’s arrest and detention are not known.

Trial

According to the Bandar Anzali Islamic Revolutionary Prosecutor’s Office communiqué, Mr. Daniali was tried before the Bandar Anzali Islamic Revolutionary Tribunal on July 6, 1981. No detailed information is available on Mr. Daniali’s trial.

Charges

According to the communiqué from Bandar Anzali Islamic Revolutionary Prosecutor’s Office Mr. Daniali and another defendant were charged with “participating in and leading illegal demonstrations, conducting organizational activity in the Khomam and Some’e Sara region, clashing with and injuring Muslim brothers with a knife, inducing fear and panic, corrupting young women and men of the region and guiding them towards counter-revolutionary activities, and destruction and breaking of doors and windows of shops.” p>

Evidence of guilt

The Bandar Anzali Islamic Revolutionary Prosecutor’s Office communiqué cited the following as evidence against Mr. Daniali and another defendant: “A report by the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps,” “field investigations and an inquiry from the devout people of the region,” “testimony of eye-witnesses,” and “confession of the defendants to acting on behalf of the Mojahedin Organization and being its leader in Khomam and surrounding areas.”

International human rights organizations have repeatedly condemned the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran for its systematic use of severe torture and solitary confinement to obtain confessions from detainees and have questioned the authenticity of confessions obtained under duress. In the case of political detainees, these confessions are, at times, televised. The National Television broadcasts confessions during which prisoners plead guilty to vague and false charges, repent and renounce their political beliefs, and/or implicate others. Human rights organizations have also pointed to the pattern of retracted confessions by those prisoners who are freed.

Defense

According to the Bandar Anzali Islamic Revolutionary Prosecutor’s Office communiqué Mr. Daniali defended himself after his indictment was read in court. No detailed information is available on Mr. Daniali’s defense..

Judgment

The Bandar Anzali Islamic Revolutionary Tribunal found Mr. Daniali guilty of waging war against God and God’s Prophet, corruption on earth, and rebelling against the Islamic Republic. Mr. Daniali was sentenced to death, and he was executed by a firing squad on July 12, 1981. Mr. Daniali was 19 years old at the time of his execution..

*

*The exclusion of MKO members from government offices and the closure of their centers and publishing houses, in conjunction with to the Islamic Republic authorities’ different interpretation of Islam, widened the gap between the two. Authorities of the new regime referred to the Mojahedin as “Hypocrites” and the Hezbollahi supporters of the regime attacked the Mojahedin sympathizers regularly during demonstrations and while distributing publications, leading to the death of several MKO supporters. On June 20, 1981, the MKO called for a demonstration protesting their treatment by governmental officials and the government officials’ efforts to impeach their ally, President Abolhassan Banisadr. Despite the fact that the regime called this demonstration illegal, thousands came to the streets, some of whom confronted the Revolutionary Guardsmen and Hezbollahis. The number of casualties that resulted from this demonstration is unknown but a large number of demonstrators were arrested and executed in the following days and weeks. The day after the demonstration, the Islamic Republic regime started a repressive campaign – unprecedented in modern Iranian history. Thousands of MKO members and sympathizers were arrested or executed. On June 21, 1981, the MKO announced an armed struggle against the Islamic Republic and assassinated a number of high-ranking officials and supporters of the Islamic regime.

In the summer of 1981, the leader of the MKO and the impeached President (Banisadr) fled Iran to reside in France, where they founded the National Council of Resistance. After the MKO leaders and many of its members were expelled from France, they went to Iraq and founded the National Liberation Army of Iran in 1987, which entered Iranian territory a few times during the Iran-Iraq war. They were defeated in July 1988 during their last operation, the Forugh Javidan Operation. A few days after this operation, thousands of imprisoned Mojahedin supporters were killed during the mass executions of political prisoners in 1988. Ever since the summer of 1981, the MKO has continued its activities outside of Iran. No information is available regarding members and activities of the MKO inside the country.

In spite of the “armed struggle” announcement by the MKO on June 20, 1981, many sympathizers of the organization had no military training, were not armed, and did not participate in armed conflict.

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