Abdorrahman Boroumand Center

for Human Rights in Iran

https://www.iranrights.org
Omid, a memorial in defense of human rights in Iran
One Person’s Story

Ruzbeh Manafi Daryan

About

Age: 21
Nationality: Iran
Religion: Non-Believer
Civil Status: Single

Case

Date of Killing: January 28, 1982
Location: Amol, Mazandaran Province, Iran
Mode of Killing: Shooting
Charges: War on God, God's Prophet and the deputy of the Twelfth Imam; Participating in clashes with revolutionary guards and or Bassij brothers; Armed rebellion against the Islamic Republic

About this Case

The information about Mr. Ruzbeh Manafi Daryan is taken from an interview with his cousin, the Jomhuri Eslami newspaper dated January 30, 1982, and the book Parandeh Noparvaz (New Flight Bird) published by the Communist Party of Iran in 2004.

Mr. Manafi (Ettehadieh Komonist-ha) is also one of the 12028 individuals listed in an addendum to the Mojahed magazine (No 261), published by Mojahedin Khalq Organization in 1985. The list includes individuals, affiliated with various opposition groups, who were executed or killed during clashes with the Islamic Republic security forces from June 1981 to the publication date of the magazine.

He was born in Tehran and a sympathizer of the Union of Iranian Communists (Sarbedaran). Before the Revolution, he went to the United States to pursue his education. He returned to Iran after the Revolution. According to the above book, he had various responsibilities in the Organization, but when the plan for armed uprising was considered, he volunteered to join the fighters (known as Sarbedaran). He arrived in Amol a day before the uprising. He was injured and arrested during a combat with Revolutionary Guards.

The Ettehadieh Komonist-ha was created by exiled opponents of the Pahlavi regime who mostly belonged to the Student Confederation. They followed the teachings of Mao Tse-Tung and did not believe in guerilla warfare. The group became marked by ideological divides during the periods preceding and following the 1979 revolution which caused it to split into several factions. One of the most important rifts was triggered by the decision by a number of members to take up arms and take over a city in Iran. The uprising plan, devised in the midst of an active and violent anti-communist campaign by the revolutionary Islamic government, split the Ettehadieh in two factions: one believing in the armed movement and the other opposing it. 

In the winter of 1982, armed members of the Ettehadieh hid in a forest in the North of Iran (Jangal in Farsi) outside the city of Amol. This group, also known as the Jangal group, was involved in several clashes with the Revolutionary guards and ultimately, on January 26, attacked the city of Amol hoping to generate a general uprising. The attempt to seize Amol failed. It is reported that a number of the group’s members, revolutionary guards, and civilians were killed during the Amol clash. Subsequently, members of the Ettehadieh, including those who opposed the Amol uprising, were arrested and tried for belonging to the organization and for having participated in the Amol clash.

Arrest and detention

According to his cousin, Mr. Ruzbeh Manafi Daryan was arrested during the armed uprising of Sarbedaran in Amol. According to the book Parandeh Noparvaz, he was arrested by Revolutionary Guards on January 27, 1982.

Trial

According to the communiqué of the Islamic Revolutionary Prosecutor’s Office in Amol published by Jomhuri Eslami, the Islamic Revolutionary Tribunal of Amol condemned Mr. Ruzbeh Manafi Daryan to death.

Charges

Based on the communiqué of the Islamic Revolutionary Prosecutor’s Office in Amol, Mr. Manafi was charged with “armed uprising against the Islamic Republic of Iran, participation in organizing illegal armed forces in the forest, carrying out an armed attack on the town of Amol and its strategic areas, provoking clashes and shooting the defenseless Muslim people.”

Evidence of guilt

The report of this execution does not contain information regarding the evidence provided against the defendant.

Defense

Mr. Ruzbeh Manafi Daryan was denied the right to have an attorney.

Judgment

According to the above book, Mr. Ruzbeh Manafi Daryan was executed along with nine others in public in Amol Stadium on January 29, 1982. According to the interviewee, a friend of the family who was present at the execution, said : "A Revolutionary Guard shouted that 'It's the people who are executing you!' Ruzbeh replied, 'Take off my blindfold. I want to see the people.'"

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